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We quantify the surface elevation changes along Yala Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya, since 1981 using geodetic methods to understand the recent evolution and current state of small debris-free glaciers across the region. We analyse differential global positioning system measurements and aerial stereo imagery that were acquired along Yala Glacier in 2007, 2009, 2012 and 2015 to generate digital elevation models for each calculation period. Continuous surface lowering has mainly been observed across the down-glacier area during the calculation periods, although a large degree of variability exists, with this lowering trend propagating up-glacier in recent years. The area-weighted glacier mass balances range from −0.98 ± 0.27 to −0.26 ± 0.30 m w.e. a−1 for the five calculation periods (1981–2007, 2007–2009, 2009–2012, 2012–2015 and 2007–2015). These calculated mass-balance data reveal that Yala Glacier has undergone accelerated mass loss since the late 2000s, which is consistent with the results of previous in situ measurement and remote-sensing studies.
The dynamics of phytoplankton biomass in the vertically mixed south-eastern part of the Bisan Strait, in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan, may be considered to be strongly dependent not only on nutrients but also on light status. This was investigated by examining variations in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), nutrients, and Secchi-disc depth through high-frequency sampling (a mean of once every 1.7 days) at the same station from April to October 2019. Precipitation during the Japanese rainy season (East Asian monsoon rains) was associated with a decrease in salinity from 32 to 31 in late July. The highest concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), the most deficient nutrient, also was recorded in late July in association with seasonal precipitation. However, the measured Chl-a peak (max. 4 μg l−1) in early August was not as high as expected, possibly due to low water clarity. A relatively small but substantial peak of DIN (max. 4 μM) was recorded in mid-August, which coincided with the passing of a typhoon. The small peak of DIN coupled with higher water clarity thereafter was followed by a phytoplankton bloom from mid-August to early September, at which the highest Chl-a (7 μg l−1) occurred. It is suggested that increased light penetration enhanced the efficiency of nutrient assimilation and thereby triggered the late-summer phytoplankton bloom. In contrast to the adjacent stratified areas, light rather than nutrient status appears to be the key determinant for the onset of phytoplankton blooms in the Bisan Strait.
To investigate recent glacier changes in the Himalayan region, we carried out GPS and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements at Yala Glacier, a benchmark glacier in Nepal. Glacier surface elevation and ice thickness were surveyed along a 1.5 km profile from the glacier top to the terminus. Ice flow velocity was measured at five locations by surveying stakes for either 1 year or 4 day periods. Obtained surface elevation and ice velocity were compared with those measured in 1982 and 1996. The mean ice thickness along the radar profile was 36 m in 2009 and the ice has been thinning at rates of-0.69 ±0.25 and -0.75 ± 0.24 m a-1 during the periods 1982-96 and 1996-2009, respectively. The thinning rate increases down-glacier, reaching a magnitude up to -1.8 m a-1 near the terminus from 1996 to 2009. The ice velocity has reduced by >70% from 1982 to 2009 in the lower half of the glacier. By assuming a constant driving stress over the glacier, the total ice volume in 2009 was estimated as 0.061 km3. Our results indicate that Yala Glacier has lost ∼40% of its ice volume over the last 27 years and that the rate of the mass loss has accelerated over the last decade.
Due to remoteness and high altitude, only a few ground-based glacier change studies are available in high-mountain areas in the Himalaya. However, digital elevation models based on remotely sensed data (RS-DEMs) provide feasible opportunities to evaluate how fast Himalayan glaciers are changing. Here we compute elevation changes in glacier surface (total area 183.3 km2) in the Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya, for the period 1992-2008 using multitemporal RS-DEMs and a map-derived DEM calibrated with differential GPS survey data in 2007. Elevation change is calculated by generating a weighted least-squares linear regression model. Our method enables us to provide the distribution of uncertainty of the elevation change. Debris-covered areas show large lowering rates. The spatial distribution of elevation change shows that the different wastage features of the debris-covered glaciers depend on their scale, slope and the existence of glacial lakes. The elevation changes of glaciers in the eastern Khumbu region are in line with previous studies. The regional average mass balance of -0.40 ± 0.25 m w.e.a-1 for the period 1992-2008 is consistent with a global value of about -0.55 m w.e. a-1 for the period 1996-2005.
The static second hyperpolarizabilities (γ) of open-shell organic nonlinear optical (NLO) systems composed of singlet diradical molecules are investigated using ab initio molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. It is found that neutral singlet diradical systems with intermediate diradical characters tend to enhance γ as compared to those with small and large diradical characters. This suggests that the diradical character is a novel control parameter of γ for singlet diradical systems.
Effects of ternary additions on the deformation behavior of single crystals of MoSi2 with the hard  and soft [0 15 1] orientations have been investigated in compression and compression creep. The alloying elements studied include V, Cr, Nb and Al that form a C40 disilicide with Si and W and Re that form a C11b disilicide with Si. The addition of Al is found to decrease the yield strength of MoSi2 at all temperatures while the additions of V, Cr and Nb are found to decrease the yield strength at low temperatures and to increase the yield strength at high temperatures. In contrast, the additions of W and Re are found to increase the yield strength at all temperatures. The creep strain rate for the  orientation is significantly lower than that for the [0 15 1] orientation. The creep strain rate for both orientations is significantly improved by alloying with ternary elements such as Re and Nb.
Observations of the Bi–O surface of superconductive Bi2212 single crystals were carried out using an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM). In the atomic resolution images, surface corrugations, which correspond to the superstructure of the Bi–O surface in addition to Bi atom deficiencies, were observed. There were hollow lines along the ridges of the corrugations, which may be due to missing atom rows.
Both YBa2Cu4O8 and (Y0.95Ca0.05)Ba2Cu4O8 were successfully prepared by firing for 160 h at 850 °C and at oxygen partial pressure of 3 atm without using any catalysts. These samples were characterized in terms of the crystallographic structure and thermal and superconducting properties. The x-ray powder diffraction patterns and superconducting properties for these samples were little changed after post-annealing for 6 h at 1070 °C and at oxygen partial pressure of 400 atm. However, when heat-treated at 700 °C in air and then quenched into liquid nitrogen, samples without post-annealing showed broader superconducting transitions than those post-annealed. Actually, the sharpness of the superconducting transition for a post-annealed sample was little affected by quenching. These observations were in agreement with the results of both transmission electron microscopy and thermal analyses.
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