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To investigate the relationship between the severities of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and white matter alterations.
We applied tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquired by 3T magnetic resonance imaging. First, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) between 20 OCD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Then, applying whole brain analysis, we searched the brain regions showing correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions assessed by Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and FA in all participants. Finally, we calculated the correlations between the six symptom dimensions and multiple DTI measures [FA, axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD)] in a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and explored the differences between OCD patients and HC.
There were no between-group differences in FA or brain region correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions and FA in any of the participants. ROI analysis revealed negative correlations between checking severity and left inferior frontal gyrus white matter and left middle temporal gyrus white matter and a positive correlation between ordering severity and right precuneus in FA in OCD compared with HC. We also found negative correlations between ordering severity and right precuneus in RD, between obsessing severities and right supramarginal gyrus in AD and MD, and between hoarding severity and right insular gyrus in AD.
Our study supported the hypothesis that the severities of respective symptom dimensions are associated with different patterns of white matter alterations.
In the SELenological and ENgineering Explorer (SELENE) project which is the Japanese lunar program to be launched in 2003 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), we measure angular distance between a radio transmitter on a relay satellite, that on the Moon and quasars by differential VLBI and determine amplitudes of the physical librations, gravitational harmonic coefficients of the Moon and lunar ephemeris with an accuracy one or two orders higher than before in cooperation with 4-way Doppler measurements and two-way Doppler and ranging measurements using the lunar orbiter and the relay satellite. We are proposing another selenodetic mission, In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement (ILOM) to study lunar rotational dynamics by direct observations of the lunar physical libration from the lunar surface with an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond in a post-SELENE project which will be launched about three years after SELENE. Year-long trajectories of the stars provide information on various components of the physical librations and we will also try to detect the lunar free librations in order to investigate the lunar mantle and the liquid core.
Effects of ternary additions on the deformation behavior of single crystals of MoSi2 with the hard  and soft [0 15 1] orientations have been investigated in compression and compression creep. The alloying elements studied include V, Cr, Nb and Al that form a C40 disilicide with Si and W and Re that form a C11b disilicide with Si. The addition of Al is found to decrease the yield strength of MoSi2 at all temperatures while the additions of V, Cr and Nb are found to decrease the yield strength at low temperatures and to increase the yield strength at high temperatures. In contrast, the additions of W and Re are found to increase the yield strength at all temperatures. The creep strain rate for the  orientation is significantly lower than that for the [0 15 1] orientation. The creep strain rate for both orientations is significantly improved by alloying with ternary elements such as Re and Nb.
Polycrystalline diamond films, single crystal bulk diamonds, and diamond powder were treated in microwave plasma of hydrogen at 1.6 torr under a negative direct-current bias of −150 to −300 V without metal catalyst. It was found that fibrous structures, uniformly elongated along the direction normal to the specimen surface, were formed on the diamond surfaces. Similar experiments for glasslike carbon resulted in conical structures with frizzy fibers at the tops. Transmission electron microscopy measurements indicated that the fibers formed on diamond consisted of randomly oriented diamond nanocrystals with diameters of less than 10 nm, while the conical structures formed on glasslike carbon consisted of graphite nanocrystals. Field emission measurements of the fibrous specimens exhibited better emission efficiency than untreated ones. The field emission electron microscopy of the fibrous glasslike carbon showed a presence of discrete electron emission sites at a density of approximately 10,000 sites/cm2.