RhO2 belongs to the family of conducting oxides with a rutile structure, which have attracted attention as capacitor electrode materials for memory devices. In this study, effects of thermal treatment under various oxygen pressures on structural and electrical properties of RhO2 thin films prepared by reactive sputtering were investigated. The RhO2 films were found to be stable up to 700°C under oxygen pressure of 1 atm and a metallic conduction property with a resistivity of about 80 μΩcm was obtained. However, the RhO2 films decomposed to semiconducting Rh2O3 at 750°C. The decomposition temperature decreased to 500°C under oxygen pressures of 0.5-5 mTorr.