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To assess interdependent effects of autonomous motivation to limit sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to SSB and healthy beverage (HB) intake in mother–adolescent and father–adolescent dyads.
Adopting a dyadic cross-sectional design, the actor–partner interdependence modelling (APIM) approach was used to construct and analyse two APIM for mother–adolescent and father–adolescent dyads. The first model assessed actor effects (individual’s autonomous motivation associated with his/her own beverage intake) and partner effects (individual’s autonomous motivation associated with another family member’s beverage consumption) of autonomous motivation on SSB consumption. The second model assessed actor and partner effects of autonomous motivation on HB intake.
Two Internet-based surveys were completed in participant households.
Data from a demographically representative US sample of parent–adolescent dyads (1225 mother–adolescent dyads, 424 father–adolescent dyads) were used.
In the first model (autonomous motivation on SSB consumption), actor effects were significant for adolescents, but not for parents. Partner effects were significant for mother–adolescent, but not father–adolescent dyads. In the second model (autonomous motivation on HB intake), actor effects were significant for adolescents and parents in all dyadic combinations. Regarding partner effects, adolescent autonomous motivation had a significant effect on HB intake for mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal autonomous motivation had a significant effect on adolescent HB intake. No partner effects for HB were identified for fathers.
We found significant interdependent effects of autonomous motivation in relation to SSB and HB intake in mother–adolescent and father–adolescent dyads for eleven out of sixteen pathways modelled.
To examine the nutritional quality of menu items promoted in four (US) fast-food restaurant chains (McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Taco Bell) in 2010 and 2013.
Menu items pictured on signs and menu boards were recorded at 400 fast-food restaurants across the USA. The Nutrient Profile Index (NPI) was used to calculate overall nutrition scores for items (higher scores indicate greater nutritional quality) and was dichotomized to denote healthier v. less healthy items. Changes over time in NPI scores and energy of promoted foods and beverages were analysed using linear regression.
Four hundred fast-food restaurants (McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Taco Bell; 100 locations per chain).
NPI of fast-food items marketed at fast-food restaurants.
Promoted foods and beverages on general menu boards and signs remained below the ‘healthier’ cut-off at both time points. On general menu boards, pictured items became modestly healthier from 2010 to 2013, increasing (mean (se)) by 3·08 (0·16) NPI score points (P<0·001) and decreasing (mean (se)) by 130 (15) kJ (31·1 (3·65) kcal; P<0·001). This pattern was evident in all chains except Taco Bell, where pictured items increased in energy. Foods and beverages pictured on the kids’ section showed the greatest nutritional improvements. Although promoted foods on general menu boards and signs improved in nutritional quality, beverages remained the same or became worse.
Foods, and to a lesser extent, beverages, promoted on menu boards and signs in fast-food restaurants showed limited improvements in nutritional quality in 2013 v. 2010.
Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers’ snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking.
Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers’ snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency.
Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3–5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child’s snacking in the context of TV viewing.
TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as ‘time out’, ‘enjoyment’ or ‘quiet.’ Caregivers’ primary reasons for providing snacks included child’s expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture (‘TV table’) specifically for snacking.
Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers’ snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage ‘snack-free’ TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children’s behaviour without snacks or TV.
According to the Family Ecological Model (FEM), parenting behaviours are shaped by the contexts in which families are embedded. In the present study, we utilize the FEM to guide a mixed-methods community assessment and summarize the results. Additionally, we discuss the utility of the FEM and outline possible improvements.
Using a cross-sectional design, qualitative and quantitative methods were used to examine the ecologies of parents' cognitions and behaviours specific to children's diet, physical activity and screen-based behaviours. Results were mapped onto constructs outlined in the FEM.
The study took place in five Head Start centres in a small north-eastern city. The community assessment was part of a larger study to develop and evaluate a family-centred obesity prevention programme for low-income families.
Participants included eighty-nine low-income parents/caregivers of children enrolled in Head Start.
Parents reported a broad range of factors affecting their parenting cognitions and behaviours. Intrafamilial factors included educational and cultural backgrounds, family size and a lack of social support from partners. Organizational factors included staff stability at key organizations, a lack of service integration and differing school routines. Community factors included social connectedness to neighbours/friends, shared norms around parenting and the availability of safe public housing and play spaces. Policy- and media-related factors included requirements of public assistance programmes, back-to-work policies and children's exposure to food advertisements.
Based on these findings, the FEM was refined to create an evidence-based, temporally structured logic model to support and guide family-centred research in childhood obesity prevention.
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