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To learn about the perceptions of healthcare personnel (HCP) on the barriers they encounter when performing infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in labor and delivery to help inform future IPC resources tailored to this setting.
Qualitative focus groups.
Labor and delivery units in acute-care settings.
A convenience sample of labor and delivery HCP attending the Infectious Diseases Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology 2022 Annual Meeting.
Two focus groups, each lasting 45 minutes, were conducted by a team from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A standardized script facilitated discussion around performing IPC practices during labor and delivery. Coding was performed by 3 reviewers using an immersion-crystallization technique.
In total, 18 conference attendees participated in the focus groups: 67% obstetrician-gynecologists, 17% infectious disease physicians, 11% medical students, and 6% an obstetric anesthesiologist. Participants described the difficulty of consistently performing IPC practices in this setting because they often respond to emergencies, are an entry point to the hospital, and frequently encounter bodily fluids. They also described that IPC training and education is not specific to labor and delivery, and personal protective equipment is difficult to locate when needed. Participants observed a lack of standardization of IPC protocols in their setting and felt that healthcare for women and pregnant people is not prioritized on a larger scale and within their hospitals.
This study identified barriers to consistently implementing IPC practices in the labor and delivery setting. These barriers should be addressed through targeted interventions and the development of obstetric-specific IPC resources.
In this summary of US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consultations with state and local health departments concerning their bronchoscope-associated investigations from 2014 through 2022, bronchoscope reprocessing gaps and exposure to nonsterile water sources appeared to be the major routes of transmission of infectious pathogens, which were primarily water-associated bacteria.
The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute-care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical-site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014.1 This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). It is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), the American Hospital Association (AHA), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
One in six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.
We describe a large outbreak of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) involving an acute-care hospital emergency department during December 2020 and January 2021, in which 27 healthcare personnel worked while infectious, resulting in multiple opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and other healthcare personnel. We provide recommendations for improving infection prevention and control.
In 2015, an international outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infections among patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgeries was associated with exposure to contaminated LivaNova 3T heater-cooler devices (HCDs). From June 2017 to October 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of 18 patients with M. chimaera infections who had undergone cardiothoracic surgeries at 2 hospitals in Kansas (14 patients) and California (4 patients); 17 had exposure to 3T HCDs. Whole-genome sequencing of the clinical and environmental isolates matched the global outbreak strain identified in 2015.
Investigations were conducted at each hospital to determine the cause of ongoing infections. Investigative methods included query of microbiologic records to identify additional cases, medical chart review, observations of operating room setup, HCD use and maintenance practices, and collection of HCD and environmental samples.
Onsite observations identified deviations in the positioning and maintenance of the 3T HCDs from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations and the manufacturer’s updated cleaning and disinfection protocols. Additionally, most 3T HCDs had not undergone the recommended vacuum and sealing upgrades by the manufacturer to decrease the dispersal of M. chimaera–containing aerosols into the operating room, despite hospital requests to the manufacturer.
These findings highlight the need for continued awareness of the risk of M. chimaera infections associated with 3T HCDs, even if the devices are newly manufactured. Hospitals should maintain vigilance in adhering to FDA recommendations and the manufacturer’s protocols and in identifying patients with potential M. chimaera infections with exposure to these devices.
To compare risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery between women covered by Medicaid and private health insurance.
Cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid or private insurance and reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and state inpatient discharge databases by hospitals in California (2011–2013).
Deliveries reported to NHSN and state inpatient discharge databases were linked to identify SSIs in the 30 days following cesarean delivery, primary payer, and patient and procedure characteristics. Additional hospital-level characteristics were obtained from public databases. Relative risk of SSI by primary payer primary payer was assessed using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient, procedure, and hospital characteristics, accounting for facility-level clustering.
Of 291,757 cesarean deliveries included, 48% were covered by Medicaid. SSIs were detected following 1,055 deliveries covered by Medicaid (0.75%) and 955 deliveries covered by private insurance (0.63%) (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–1.3; P < .0001). The adjusted odds of SSI following cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.6; P < .0001) times the odds of those covered by private insurance.
In this, the largest and only multicenter study to investigate SSI risk following cesarean delivery by primary payer, Medicaid-insured women had a higher risk of infection than privately insured women. These findings suggest the need to evaluate and better characterize the quality of maternal healthcare for and needs of women covered by Medicaid to inform targeted infection prevention and policy.
Water exposures in healthcare settings and during healthcare delivery can place patients at risk for infection with water-related organisms and can potentially lead to outbreaks. We aimed to describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consultations involving water-related organisms leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
Retrospective observational study.
We reviewed internal CDC records from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2017, using water-related terms and organisms, excluding Legionella, to identify consultations that involved potential or confirmed transmission of water-related organisms in healthcare. We determined plausible exposure pathways and routes of transmission when possible.
Of 620 consultations during the study period, we identified 134 consultations (21.6%), with 1,380 patients, that involved the investigation of potential water-related HAIs or infection control lapses with the potential for water-related HAIs. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were involved in the greatest number of investigations (n = 40, 29.9%). Most frequently, investigations involved medical products (n = 48, 35.8%), and most of these products were medical devices (n = 40, 83.3%). We identified a variety of plausible water-exposure pathways, including medication preparation near water splash zones and water contamination at the manufacturing sites of medications and medical devices.
Water-related investigations represent a substantial proportion of CDC HAI consultations and likely represent only a fraction of all water-related HAI investigations and outbreaks occurring in US healthcare facilities. Water-related HAI investigations should consider all potential pathways of water exposure. Finally, healthcare facilities should develop and implement water management programs to limit the growth and spread of water-related organisms.
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