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Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are an increasing burden among healthcare facilities. We assessed facility-level perceived importance of and responses to various MDROs.
A pilot survey to assess staffing, knowledge, and the perceived importance of and response to various multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs)
Acute care and long-term healthcare facilities
In 2012, a survey was distributed to infection preventionists at ~300 healthcare facilities. Pathogens assessed were Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, multidrug-resistant (defined as bacterial resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes) Pseudomonas, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.
A total of 74 unique facilities responded, including 44 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and 30 acute care facilities (ACFs). While ACFs consistently isolated patients with active infections or colonization due to these MDROs, SNFs had more variable responses. SNFs had more multi-occupancy rooms and reported less specialized training in infection control and prevention than did ACFs. Of all facilities with multi-occupancy rooms, 86% employed a cohorting practice for patients, compared with 50% of those without multi-occupancy rooms; 20% of ACFs and 7% of SNFs cohorted staff while caring for patients with the same MDRO. MRSA and C. difficile were identified as important pathogens in ACFs and SNFs, while CRE importance was unknown or was considered important in <50% of SNFs.
We identified stark differences in human resources, knowledge, policy, and practice between ACFs and SNFs. For regional control of emerging MDROs like CRE, there is an opportunity for public health officials to provide targeted education and interventions. Education campaigns must account for differences in audience resources and baseline knowledge.
Describe the clinical and molecular epidemiology of incident Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases in Chicago area acute healthcare facilities (HCFs).
Design and Setting.
Laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic information was collected for patients with incident CDI who were admitted to acute HCFs in February 2009. Stool cultures and restriction endonuclease analysis typing of the recovered C. difficile isolates was performed.
Two hundred sixty-three patients from 25 acute HCFs.
Acute HCF rates ranged from 2 to 7 patients with CDI per 10,000 patient-days. The crude mortality rate was 8%, with 20 deaths occurring in patients with CDI. Forty-two (16%) patients had complications from CDI, including 4 patients who required partial, subtotal, or total colectomy, 3 of whom died. C. difficile was isolated and typed from 129 of 178 available stool specimens. The BI strain was identified in 79 (61%) isolates. Of patients discharged to long-term care who had their isolate typed, 36 (67%) had BI-associated CDI.
Severe disease was common and crude mortality was substantial among patients with CDI in Chicago area acute HCFs in February 2009. The outbreak-associated BI strain was the predominant endemic strain identified, accounting for nearly two-thirds of cases. Focal HCF outbreaks were not reported, despite the presence of the BI strain. Transfer of patients between acute and long-term HCFs may have contributed to the high incidence of BI cases in this investigation.
To describe an outbreak of infection associated with an infrequently implicated pathogen, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, in an increasingly prominent setting for health care of severely ill patients, the long-term acute care hospital.
Long-term acute care hospital with 55 patients, most of whom were mechanically ventilated.
We defined a case as E. meningoseptica isolated from any patient specimen source from December 2007 through April 2008, conducted an investigation of case patients, obtained environmental specimens, and performed microbiologic testing.
Nineteen patients had E. meningoseptica infection, and 8 died. All case patients had been admitted with respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation. Among the 8 individuals who died, the time from collection of the first specimen positive for E. meningoseptica to death ranged from 6 to 43 days (median, 16 days). Environmental sampling was performed on 106 surfaces; E. meningoseptica was isolated from only one swab. Three related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were identified in patient isolates; the environmental isolate yielded a fourth, unrelated pattern.
Long-term acute care hospitals with mechanically ventilated patients could serve as an important transmission setting for E. meningoseptica. This multidrug-resistant bacterium could pose additional risk when patients are transferred between long-term acute care hospitals and acute care hospitals.
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