This study compared the effect of gelatin- and chitosan-based scaffolds on osteoblast biomineralization. These scaffolds have been modified using methacrylate and laponite nanosilicates to improve their mechanical strength and support osteoblast function. Scaffold materials were prepared to have the same compressive strength (14–15 MPa) such that differences in cell response would be isolated to differences in biopolymer chemistry. The materials were tested for rheological properties to optimize the bio-ink for successful 3D printing using a robocast-assisted deposition system. Osteoblasts were cultured on the surface of 3D-printed methacrylated chitosan-laponite (MAC-Lp), methacrylated gelatin-laponite (MAG-Lp), MAC, and MAG scaffolds. MAC-Lp scaffolds showed increased cell viability, cell growth, and biomineral formation as compared to MAG-Lp scaffolds. FTIR results showed the presence of higher biomineral phosphate and extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen-like amide formation on MAC-Lp scaffolds as compared to MAG-Lp scaffolds. MAC-Lp scaffolds showed increased density of ECM-like tissue from SEM analysis, stained mineral nodules from Alizarin staining, and the existence of Ca–P species evident by X-ray absorbance near edge structure analysis. In conclusion, MAC-Lp scaffolds enhanced osteoblast growth and biomineral formation as compared to MAG-Lp scaffolds.