Consumption of simple carbohydrates has markedly increased over the past decades, and may be involved in the increased prevalence in metabolic diseases. Whether an increased intake of fructose is specifically related to a dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism remains controversial. We therefore compared the effects of hypercaloric diets enriched with fructose (HFrD) or glucose (HGlcD) in healthy men. Eleven subjects were studied in a randomised order after 7 d of the following diets: (1) weight maintenance, control diet; (2) HFrD (3·5 g fructose/kg fat-free mass (ffm) per d, +35 % energy intake); (3) HGlcD (3·5 g glucose/kg ffm per d, +35 % energy intake). Fasting hepatic glucose output (HGO) was measured with 6,6-2H2-glucose. Intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both fructose and glucose increased fasting VLDL-TAG (HFrD: +59 %, P < 0·05; HGlcD: +31 %, P = 0·11) and IHCL (HFrD: +52 %, P < 0·05; HGlcD: +58 %, P = 0·06). HGO increased after both diets (HFrD: +5 %, P < 0·05; HGlcD: +5 %, P = 0·05). No change was observed in fasting glycaemia, insulin and alanine aminotransferase concentrations. IMCL increased significantly only after the HGlcD (HFrD: +24 %, NS; HGlcD: +59 %, P < 0·05). IHCL and VLDL-TAG were not different between hypercaloric HFrD and HGlcD, but were increased compared to values observed with a weight maintenance diet. However, glucose led to a higher increase in IMCL than fructose.