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The AAEE 2014 research symposium in Hobart provided a privileged space for researchers and practitioners within environmental education and sustainability education (EE/SE) to come together and create dialogues about education for sustainability research. This essay is a critical reflection from postgraduate researchers about the symposium and the EE/SE research landscape more broadly. The authors interrogate contemporary research frameworks and practices, and deliberate on how current perceptions enable and inhibit performance within EE/SE research. The authors ask provocative questions and encourage readers to imagine for themselves what a new research landscape, freed of calcified frameworks and entrenched systems, might look like. The essay then draws on an ecological systems perspective as a means of reimagining EE/SE research within a more emergent landscape that values inclusivity, democracy, collaborative inquiry and curiosity.
The repository of GRB (gamma-ray burst) observations made by the Swift X-ray Telescope, now consisting of over 650 bursts, is a valuable and unique resource for the study of GRB X-ray emission. The observed soft X-ray spectrum typically arises from an underlying power law continuum, absorbed by gas along the line-of-sight. However, particularly at early times in a burst's evolution the continuum emission is not always understood and may comprise multiple components including thermal emission unexpected in the standard model. A thermal X-ray component has been discovered in two very unusual GRBs, perhaps suggesting an association only with this subset of events. However, evidence exists for thermal emission from more typical examples and here we present a new discovery of one such case and describe a systematic search for thermal components among all early GRB X-ray spectra.
We grow epitaxial silicon films onto (100) silicon wafers from pure silane by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The films grow epitaxially for a thickness hepi before a Si:H cones nucleate and expand. We study the dependence of hepi on growth rate and the differences between Ta and W filaments. The surface morphology of thin but completely epitaxial films are studied in order to correlate the surface roughness during growth with the eventual epitaxial breakdown thickness. Surface roughness, strain and H at the wafer/film interface are not likely to cause the observed breakdown.
Blood culture-based diagnosis can only detect a fraction of the total burden of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. The objective of the study was to detect additional typhoid fever cases through serological tests. A total of 1732 prolonged fever episodes were evaluated using three serological tests, Widal, Tubex® and Typhidot-M® in a typhoid fever endemic area of southern China. A case definition which included a positive Widal test (TO⩾80 & TH>A), a positive Tubex® test (⩾4) and a positive Typhidot-M® test, increased the detection of cases by more than twofold from 13 to 28 cases. The case definition has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 39%. Case definitions based on combinations of serological tests can detect additional typhoid fever cases with higher specificity than a single serological test. Improved case detection is essential to understand the true disease burden and can help to boost the power of intervention trials.
The association between social inequality at birth and subsequent risk of schizophrenia is uncertain.
To investigate the relationship between adult-onset schizophrenia and two indicators of social inequality at birth: social class and area of residence.
A matched case–control design was used with data from birth certificates of first-episode cases and age— and gender-matched controls.
Risk increased with increasing levels of deprivation at birth. Subjects whose fathers were social class IV–V or who were born in deprived areas were at increased risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio=2.1; 95% Cl=0.8–5.5). Risk was greater in those with both of these indicators (odds ratio=8.1; 95% CI=2.7–23.9). There was some evidence that associations were stronger in older subjects. Exclusion of African–Caribbeans or cases with positive family history somewhat attenuated the association.
Indicators of social inequality at birth are associated with increased risk of adult-onset schizophrenia, suggesting that environmental factors are important determinants of schizophrenic disorders.
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