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Forensic pathologists are increasingly faced with challenges when it comes to geriatric cases, due to an aging population and increased co-morbidities in the elderly. This text provides an up-to-date guide to all facets of geriatric forensic pathology, with contributions from experts from a variety of disciplines. Packed with color illustrations and case examples, chapters cover inflicted, self-inflicted and accidental trauma, as well as natural conditions leading to unexpected death. In addition, specific chapters cover a wide range of difficult and topical areas, from elder abuse, dementias and nutrition to pharmacology and toxicology issues, long-term care facilities and scene investigation. Topics such as euthanasia are also explored to provide the reader with a rich, contemporary understanding of medicolegal issues. This is an invaluable resource not only for pathologists, but also for medical practitioners and lawyers dealing with geriatric cases. The book comes packaged with online access to the text and high-resolution images.
Magical realism can lay claim to being one of most recognizable genres of prose writing. It mingles the probable and improbable, the real and the fantastic, and it provided the late-twentieth century novel with an infusion of creative energy in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and beyond. Writers such as Alejo Carpentier, Gabriel García Márquez, Isabel Allende, Salman Rushdie, Ben Okri, and many others harnessed the resources of narrative realism to the representation of folklore, belief, and fantasy. This book sheds new light on magical realism, exploring in detail its global origins and development. It offers new perspectives of the history of the ideas behind this literary tradition, including magic, realism, otherness, primitivism, ethnography, indigeneity, and space and time.
This Handbook provides both breadth and depth regarding current approaches to the understanding, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders. The five parts of the book address etiology; models; individual disorders and clusters; assessment; and treatment. A comprehensive picture of personality pathology is supplied that acknowledges the contributions and missteps of the past, identifies the crucial questions of the present, and sets a course for the future. It also follows the changes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) has triggered in the field of personality disorders. The editors take a unique approach where all chapters include two commentaries by experts in the field, as well as an author rejoinder. This approach engages multiple perspectives and an exchange of ideas. It is the ideal resource for researchers and treatment providers at all career stages.
What can we tell about the future of automobiles and the industries that make them by examining their past? Wormald and Rennick trace the history of powered land transport, the rise and fall of the railways, the spectacular rise of the automobile, and what might come next. Delving into the mighty and complex automotive industry, following the growth of the markets and production, this book illustrates the globalization of vehicle manufacturers and component suppliers, giving form to the development of the industry's business model. A key factor in an auto-industry's successes and failures is the often-difficult relationship it has with government, which varies in nature from country to country. As an illustrative case, Wormald and Rennick present and analyse the entire lifecycle of Australia's automotive history – including its birth, growth, functioning and death - and its shifting relationship with the government that supported it.
Chest trauma is present in almost two thirds of all trauma patients, varying in severity from a simple rib fracture to penetrating injury to the heart.1 Blunt chest trauma accounts for 90% of cases, where less than 10% require surgical intervention.1 Understanding chest trauma mechanism is key to the approach when evaluating and managing an individual with potential chest trauma.
Surprisingly little is known about what ancient Confucian thinkers struggled with in their own social and political contexts and how these struggles contributed to the establishment and further development of classical Confucian political theory. Leading scholar of comparative political theory, Sungmoon Kim offers a systematic philosophical account of the political theories of Mencius and Xunzi, investigating both their agreements and disagreements as the champions of the Confucian Way against the backdrop of the prevailing realpolitik of the late Warring States period. Together, they contributed to the formation of Confucian virtue politics, in which concerns about political order and stability and concerns about moral character and moral enhancement are deeply intertwined. By presenting their political philosophies in terms of constitutionalism, Kim shows how they each developed the ability to authorize the ruler's legitimate use of power in domestic and interstate politics in ways consistent with their distinctive accounts of human nature.
The present study analysed and compared the nutritional qualities of private brand (PB) and national brand (NB) ready meal (RM) products in South Korea.
Data on RM products were collected via a food information database (EatSight) between February and May of 2017. A total of ninety-one PB products from a leading discount store chain in South Korea and 415 NB products were selected and divided into four main categories of ‘refrigerated soups/stews’, ‘refrigerated noodles’, ‘frozen rice/noodles’ and ‘frozen dumplings’. Nutritional information was extracted for each product and analyses were performed to compare nutritional differences.
A total of 506 RM products.
PB products explained the highest percentage of refrigerated RM products while NB products occupied the highest percentage of frozen ones. Notably, main PB and NB products showed evident nutritional problems. Among PB products, refrigerated soups/stews were significantly higher in energy, fat, Na, saturated fat and trans-fat. Likewise, in the case of NB products, frozen rice/noodles were significantly higher in Na and saturated fat. Particularly, overall Na contents were high. When the Korean guidance on traffic-light labelling was applied, a mere 0·2 and 5·9 % of total RM products showed all four and three green lights, respectively. Meanwhile, those with no green lights accounted for 42·3 %.
Although it is difficult to draw a definitive conclusion on the comparative nutritional qualities due to the lack of consistency in the results, the study suggests that there is room to improve the nutritional qualities of overall RM products.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies were performed to assess the dose–response associations between fruit or vegetable consumption and the chance of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies on the association between fruit or vegetable consumption and the risk of the MetS published from January 1958 to 30 October 2018 were searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase databases, and the references of relevant articles were reviewed. Random-effects models were used to estimate the summary OR with 95 % CI for the MetS, and dose–response analysis was conducted to quantify the associations. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q and I2 statistics. A total of nine observational studies (seven cross-sectional studies and two cohort studies) were included in the meta-analysis. In a dose–response analysis of cohort studies and cross-sectional studies, the summary estimate of the MetS for an increase of 100 g/d in fruit consumption (nine studies) was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·99; I2 = 26·7 %), whereas an increase of 100 g/d in vegetable consumption (nine studies) was not associated with a reduction in the MetS (OR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·01; I2 = 54·6 %). In conclusion, an increased intake of fruit may reduce the risk of the MetS. For future research, prospective studies or randomised clinical trials are needed to identify the effects of fruits and vegetables by variety on the risk of the MetS.
What determines cross-national variations in the extent of anti-government protests in Asia? Anti-government protests have surged across Asia in recent years, with many contributing to consequential political change. However, systematic cross-national comparison of the determinants of protests in Asia is still largely missing. This article fills this important gap by quantitatively examining the explanatory power of the three main theories of contentious politics—grievance, resource mobilization, and political process theories—in the Asian context with new data on anti-government protests in all 25 Asian states from 1990 to 2016. The analysis finds that urbanization, information and communication technology, and regional demonstration effects are the strong catalysts of anti-government protests in Asia, while repressive state capacity particularly dampens protests. The findings offer important insights into the dynamics of the anti-government protests that have become increasingly salient in Asian politics.
Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have widely been studied as an ideal platform for developing electronic, photovoltaic, photonic devices and biological probes in the nanoscale. The ability to synthesize high-quality NWs of various materials with a precise control in shape, doping and crystal structure is the key to the growth of NW-based technologies. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in controllably creating NW heterojunctions and periodically-modulated superlattices (SLs) because it is expected to bring new functionalities that are not present in uniform NWs. In particular, the interaction of NW SLs with light has been one of the central interests because the diameter and modulation length scale are on the same order as the wavelength of light in the optical regime. Also, degenerately-doped semiconductor NWs exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs), which comprises unexpected long-range interactions when the plasmon resonators are regularly placed in NW SLs. In this review, I will summarize the recent progress in photonics research of NW SLs. The topics discussed include preparation and types of NW SLs, light-trapping and light-emission properties, and plasmonic optical- and thermal-transport properties.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of developing and implementing a transdisciplinary community-based research center, the Center for Health Equity Research (CHER) Chicago, to offer a model for designing and implementing research centers that aim to address structural causes of health inequality.
Scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines formed a multidisciplinary team for the Center, and adopted the structural violence framework as the organizing conceptual model. All Center activities were based on community partnership. The Center activities were organized within three cores: administrative, investigator development, and community engagement and dissemination cores. The key activities during the first year were to develop a pilot grant program for early stage investigators (ESIs) and to establish community partnership mechanisms.
CHER provided more than 60 consultations for ESIs, which resulted in 31 pilot applications over the three application cycles. Over 200 academic and community partners attended the community symposium and discussed community priority. Some challenges encountered were: to improve communication among investigators, to clarify roles and responsibilities of the three cores, and to build consensus on the definition and operationalization of the concept of structural violence.
There is an increasing need for local hubs to facilitate transdisciplinary collaboration and community engagement to effectively address health inequity. Building consensus around a shared vision among partners is a difficult and yet important step toward achieving equity.
Arbitrage between consumption and saving occurs in a context of an aging society where family solidarity is deteriorating. Maximizing inter-temporal utility makes it possible to calculate the preference for saving. The arbitrage involves subjective satisfaction with the quality of life, anticipated survival, and consumption profiles. Simultaneous equations based on the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging, 2006–2014 (10,205 adults aged 45 and over) show that the preference for saving is determined only by and through these endogenous variables, with no other direct socioeconomic effects. People spending more money in education are those with the highest preference for saving. Socioeconomic variables influence the preference for saving in agreement to the economic theory of the life cycle, but through the structured filter of endogenous subjective variables and consumption profiles.
The cycling endurance of phase-change memory is one of the last hurdles to overcome to enable its adoption in the larger market for persistent memory products. Phase-change memory cycling endurance failures, whether they are stuck-SET (caused by elemental segregation) or stuck-RESET (caused by void formation), are caused by atomic migration. Various driving forces responsible for the atomic migration have been identified, such as hole-wind force, electrostatic force, and crystallization-induced segregation. We introduce several strategies to improve cycling endurance based on an understanding of driving forces and interactions among them. Utilizing some of these endurance-improving techniques, record-high phase-change memory cycling endurance at around 1012 cycles has been recently reported using a confined phase-change memory cell with a metallic liner.
Research participants want to receive results from studies in which they participate. However, health researchers rarely share the results of their studies beyond scientific publication. Little is known about the barriers researchers face in returning study results to participants.
Using a mixed-methods design, health researchers (N=414) from more than 40 U.S. universities were asked about barriers to providing results to participants. Respondents were recruited from universities with Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs and Prevention Research Centers (PRCs).
Respondents reported the percent of their research where they experienced each of the four barriers to disseminating results to participants: logistical/methodological, financial, systems, and regulatory. A fifth barrier, investigator capacity, emerged from data analysis. Training for research faculty and staff, promotion and tenure incentives, and funding agencies supporting dissemination of results to participants were solutions offered to overcoming barriers.
Study findings add to literature on research dissemination by documenting health researchers’ perceived barriers to sharing study results with participants. Implications for policy and practice suggest that additional resources and training could help reduce dissemination barriers and increase the return of results to participants.
A simple and facile stereolithography 3D printing technique was utilized to fabricate piezoelectric photopolymer-based polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blends. Different process variables, such as solvent (N,N-dimethylformamide, DMF) to PVDF ratio and PVDF solution to photopolymer resin (PR) ratio, were engineered to enhance the dispersion of the PVDF into the PR so as to achieve the maximum piezoelectric coupling coefficient. Our results demonstrate that a ratio of 1:10 (PVDF:DMF) and 2 wt%-PVDF/PR was optimal for the best dissolution of the PVDF, 3D printability, and piezoelectric properties. Under these conditions, the blend generated ±0.121 nA under 80 N dynamic loading excitation. We believe that the findings of this work would promote many further studies on the mass production of flexible piezoelectric polymer blends with higher quality finished surface and design flexibility.
Body weight is a major determinant of the risk forfrailty, but the effect of obesity on frailty is controversial. The present study aimed to confirm the hypothesis that the risk of frailty is positively associated with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2), but the association is mediated by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in older women and men. A total of 2,862 community-dwelling older individuals aged 70–84 years were assessed for frailty using the Korean version of Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, and Loss of weight index. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)was associated with a higher risk of frailty compared with BMI 18.5– <23 kg/m2 in the older individuals(odds ratio [OR] 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–3.17; P=0.018) and in older women (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.01–3.42; P=0.047) beforeadjusting for WHtR but was not associated with BMI after adjusting for WHtR. Additionally, obesity was not significantly associated with the risk of frailty before and after adjusting for WHtR in older men. Mediation analysis revealed that the association between BMI and frailty score was mediated by WHtR. Moreover, the mediating effect of WHtR on frailty score was positive in both women and men, but the frailty score was associated with BMI positively in women but negatively in men. The present study suggests that the risk of frailty is higher in obesewomen, which is mediated by WHtR, but not in obese men.
We study spatial and spatio-temporal pattern formation emergent from reaction–diffusion–advection systems formed by considering reaction–diffusion systems coupled to prescribed fluid flows. While there have been a number of studies on the planar dynamics of such systems and the resulting instabilities and spatio-temporal patterning in the plane, less has been done on complicated flows in complex domains. We consider a general approach for the study of bounded domains in order to model two- and three-dimensional geometries which are more likely to be of relevance for modelling dynamics within fluid vessels used in experiments. Considering a variety of problem geometries with finite cross-sections, such as two-dimensional channels, three-dimensional ducts and three-dimensional pipes, we demonstrate the role cross-section geometry plays in pattern formation under such systems. We find that the generic instability is that of an oscillatory or wave Turing instability, resulting in patterns which change in time, often being advected with the fluid flow. As in previous works, we observe a change in patterns formed when progressing from zero to weak to strong advection for uniform advection across the domain, with particularly strong advection destroying patterns. One novel finding is that heterogeneous fluid flow can induce qualitatively different patterns across the domain. For instance, Poiseuille flow with maximal advection in the centre of a vessel and zero advection at the boundary of a vessel is shown to exhibit patterns in the centre of the vessel which are different from patterns near the boundary, with differences attributed to the differential local advection within each region of the vessel. Additionally, we observe sheared patterns, which appear due to gradients in the fluid velocity, and cannot be obtained via any kind of uniform flow. Finally we also explore flow in more complex domains, including wavy-walled channels, continuous stirred-tank reactors, U-shaped pipes and a toroidal domain, in order to demonstrate behaviours when the flow is both heterogeneous and bidirectional, as well as to demonstrate that our results still apply for complex finite domains. Our analysis suggests that such non-trivial advection results in moving patterns which are more complex than observed in simpler reaction–diffusion–advection, and may be more characteristic of realistic flow regimes in biological media.