To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Every Sunday, Christians all over the world recite the Nicene Creed as a confession of faith. While most do not know the details of the controversy that led to its composition, they are aware that the Council of Nicaea was a critical moment in the history of Christianity. For scholars, the Council has long been a subject of multi-disciplinary interest and continues to fascinate and inspire research. As we approach the 1700th anniversary of the Council, The Cambridge Companion to the Council of Nicaea provides an opportunity to revisit and reflect on old discussions, propose new approaches and interpretative frameworks, and ultimately revitalize a conversation that remains as important now as it was in the fourth century. The volume offers fifteen original studies by scholars who each examine an aspect of the Council. Informed by interdisciplinary approaches, the essays demonstrate its profound legacy with fresh, sometimes provocative, but always intellectually rich ideas.
This new edition provides a much-needed reference book to accommodate emerging and expanding knowledge in fertility preservation, the rapidly growing field of reproductive medicine associated with advances in oncology. Written by a team of world-leading experts in the field and comprehensive in its scope, the book covers the full range of techniques and scientific concepts in detail. It opens with an introduction to fertility preservation in both cancer and non-cancer patients, followed by fertility preservation strategies in males and females, including medical/surgical procedures, ART, cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue, and in-vitro follicle culture. Concluding chapters address new technologies, as well as ethical, legal and religious issues. The book has been thoroughly updated, includes additional contributors, and now provides greater focus on practical and clinically relevant issues. Richly illustrated throughout, this is a key resource for clinicians specializing in reproductive medicine, gynecology, oncology, hematology, endocrinology and infertility.
The collective nature of character is a defining aspect of magical realism in the Americas and arguably the mode’s most notable departure from the conventions of literary realism. Magical realist authors aim to express communal realities, whether political, historical and/or cultural. To this end, they create 'insubstantial' characters who are not individualized or given complex interior lives. Rather, their identity is relational and based in collective structures, whether family, class, culture and/or ideology. Given magical realism’s greater investment in political and cultural selfhood, characters tend toward archetype and their lives toward allegory. The magical realist strategy of minimizing individuality in favor of collective experience allows authors to foreground politics over personality. As readers, we are asked to focus not on single selves, but on the political arc of entire continents and cultures. The authors discussed are García Márquez, Carpentier, Allende, Borges, Donoso and Erdrich.
Magical realism is a concept that has proved stubbornly resistant to processes of naming and definition. In the narrow sense in which the term is used by literary critics, magical realism refers to a mode or a style – sometimes a genre – of writing in which magical elements are presented alongside realistic ones as if there were no difference of kind between them. A magical realist text will treat supernatural occurrences as if they were perfectly natural. It will incorporate, without surprise, fantastic elements into the realm of history and objective materiality.
How responsive is the US’ Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) to the labor dislocation that results from trade integration? Recent findings suggest that the world's most ambitious trade adjustment program barely responds to import shocks, and that the shortfall is made up by disability insurance and early retirement. This holds considerable implications: TAA offers a lens onto the central question of whether developed democracies can effectively redistribute the gains from international economic integration. We take a closer look at these results. Using petition-level data over a 20-year period, we find that TAA is between 1.7 and 3.3 times more responsive than current estimates suggest. Yet the news is not all good. As we show, the responsiveness of TAA has decreased considerably since the 1990s, just as developed democracies started facing increasing pushback against liberalization. This shortfall, in turn, has political consequences: areas where TAA has been least responsive were also more likely to shift toward voting for Trump in the 2016 Presidential election. Our findings speak to the considerable challenge governments face in aiding workers “left behind” by liberalization.
We calculated the human resources required for an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in Korean hospitals.
Multicenter retrospective study.
Eight Korean hospitals ranging in size from 295 to 1,337 beds.
The time required for performing ASP activities for all hospitalized patients under antibiotic therapy was estimated and converted into hours per week. The actual time spent on patient reviews of each ASP activity was measured with a small number of cases, then the total time was estimated by applying the determined times to a larger number of cases. Full-time equivalents (FTEs) were measured according to labor laws in Korea (52 hours per week).
In total, 225 cases were reviewed to measure time spent on patient reviews. The median time spent per patient review for ASP activities ranged from 10 to 16 minutes. The total time spent on the review for all hospitalized patients was estimated using the observed number of ASP activities for 1,534 patients who underwent antibiotic therapy on surveillance days. The most commonly observed ASP activity was ‘review of surgical prophylactic antibiotics’ (32.7%), followed by ‘appropriate antibiotics recommendations for patients with suspected infection without a proven site of infection but without causative pathogens’ (28.6%). The personnel requirement was calculated as 1.20 FTEs (interquartile range [IQR], 1.02–1.38) per 100 beds and 2.28 FTEs (IQR, 1.93–2.62) per 100 patients who underwent antibiotic therapy, respectively.
The estimated time required for human resources performing extensive ASP activities on all hospitalized patients undergoing antibiotic therapy in Korean hospitals was ~1.20 FTEs (IQR, 1.02–1.38) per 100 beds.
Several studies on the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are being conducted, and various drugs are being tried; however, the results have not been uniform. Steroids have been widely used in the treatment of COVID-19, but their effects are controversial. As immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents, steroids are considered to reduce lung damage by regulating various inflammatory responses. We report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pneumonia manifesting as a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia-like reaction and discuss its treatment, clinical course, and favorable outcomes after steroid administration.
Magical realism can lay claim to being one of most recognizable genres of prose writing. It mingles the probable and improbable, the real and the fantastic, and it provided the late-twentieth century novel with an infusion of creative energy in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and beyond. Writers such as Alejo Carpentier, Gabriel García Márquez, Isabel Allende, Salman Rushdie, Ben Okri, and many others harnessed the resources of narrative realism to the representation of folklore, belief, and fantasy. This book sheds new light on magical realism, exploring in detail its global origins and development. It offers new perspectives of the history of the ideas behind this literary tradition, including magic, realism, otherness, primitivism, ethnography, indigeneity, and space and time.
The risk of environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the extent of environmental contamination in the ICU and correlate this with patient and disease factors, including the impact of different ventilatory modalities.
Observational study where surface environmental samples collected from ICU patient rooms and common areas were tested by SARS-CoV-2 PCR, with select samples from the common area tested on cell culture. Clinical data were collected and correlated to presence of environmental contamination. Results were compared to historical data from a previous study in general wards (GW).
200 samples from 20 patient rooms, and 75 samples from common areas and the staff pantry, were tested. 14 rooms had at least one site contaminated, with an overall contamination rate of 14% (28 of 200 samples). Environmental contamination was not associated with day of illness, ventilatory mode, aerosol generating procedures, or viral load. There was lower frequency of environmental contamination in ICU compared to GW rooms. Eight samples from the common area were positive, though all were negative on cell culture.
Environmental contamination in the ICU is lower compared to the GW. Use of mechanical ventilation or high-flow nasal oxygen was not associated with greater surface contamination, supporting their use and safety from an infection control perspective. Transmission risk via environmental surfaces in the ICUs is likely to be low. Nonetheless, infection control practices should be strictly reinforced, and transmission risk via droplet or airborne spread remains.
Lipid metabolism and inflammation contribute to cardiovascular disease development. This study investigated whether the consumption of cranberry (CR; Vaccinium macrocarpon) can alter high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and prevent inflammation in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A-I transgene (hApoAITg), which have similar HDL profiles to those of humans. Male hApoAITg mice were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93M high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol, w/w; n=15) or high-fat/high-cholesterol diet containing CR (5 % dried CR powder, w/w, n=16) for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight between the groups. Serum total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in control than CR group with no significant differences in serum HDL-C and apoA-I. Mice fed CR showed significantly higher serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity than the control. Liver weight and steatosis were not significantly different between the groups, but hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was significantly lower in the CR group. In the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), the CR group showed higher weights with decreased expression of genes for lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. The mRNA abundance of F4/80, a macrophage marker, and the numbers of crown-like structures were less in the CR group. In the soleus muscle, the CR group also demonstrated higher expression of genes for fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis than those of the control. In conclusion, although CR consumption elicited minor effects on HDL metabolism, it prevented obesity-induced inflammation in eWAT with concomitant alterations in soleus muscle energy metabolism.