Our research proposes ‘mixed legal transplant’ as a new concept in theories of legal transplantation. While the concept of legal transplantation is real, the phenomenon is much more complicated than what is often depicted and discussed by the academic community. In modern times, legal transplantation is often an informed reception by independent sovereign nations or people of two or more sets of rules from different jurisdictions, rather than a simplistic and passive reception of rules from one country to another. Using Vietnam as a case study, this article analyzes the deliberate consideration of two different models of precedent in the civil and common law traditions by Vietnamese lawmakers, and their choice of a mixed legal transplant in the hope that it would be best suited to the needs of a socialist country in transition. Its methods and results, however, are still in doubt and have been criticized as possibly creating uncertainty due to their structural incoherence. This article therefore concludes by proposing recommendations based on legal tradition to correct the misuse of the mixed legal transplant in Vietnam, and we hope that these recommendations can serve as a model for other countries.