Indium phosphide (InP) nanowires (NWs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on various substrates including SrTiO3 (001), Si (001) and InP (111) at a growth temperature of 380°C. We used the Vapor Liquid Solid assisted method with Au as a metal catalyst. The composition of the catalyst particles and the crystalline structure of the nanowires were compared using reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope. It is found that InP nanowires grown onto InP and SrTiO3 substrates are structurally defects free with a wurtzite structure. On Si (001) substrates, the presence of stacking faults and cubic phase insertion along the growth direction is observed. The effect of the substrate on the composition of catalyst droplets and consequently on the crystalline quality of the nanowires is discussed for the conditions of nucleation and defect formation.