We present detailed petrography, geochemistry and zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopes of the Mante Aobao granite porphyry in East Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, with the aim of determining its age and petrogenesis, important for understanding the early Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing’an–Mongolian Orogenic Belt. The Mante Aobao granite porphyry consists of plagioclase, quartz and minor biotite, but without amphibole. Zircon U–Pb analyses yield ages of 450 ± 1 Ma and 445 ± 2 Ma for the granite porphyry, indicating that it formed during Late Ordovician time. The granite porphyry is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (aluminous saturation index A/CNK = 0.98–1.11) with high SiO2, K2O and Na2O concentrations and differentiation index (DI = 85–90). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns display enrichment of light REEs (LREEs) with high ratios of (La/Yb)N and negative Eu anomalies. In the mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, all samples are characterized by depletions of high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta and Ti) and enrichments of large-ion lithophiles (LILEs; Rb, Th, U and K). These geochemical features indicate that the granite porphyry is a highly fractionated I-type granite and formed in a subduction-related setting. Zircon grains have positive εHf(t) values of +9.2 to +11.2, and TDM2(Hf) ages of 691–821 Ma, suggesting that the granite porphyry was generated by partial melting of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust with involvement of fractional crystallization during magmatic evolution. It is likely that underplating of mantle-derived magmas during Late Ordovician time provided the necessary heat to partially melt this juvenile crust. Combined with the regional geological data, we infer that the Mante Aobao granite porphyry was emplaced in an active continental margin setting that was probably related to the northwards subduction of the Paleo-Asian Plate beneath the South Mongolian Terrane along the Sonid Zuoqi–Xilinhot axis.