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Children with asthma face serious mental health risk, but the pathways remain unclear. This study aimed to examine bullying victimisation and perpetration in children with asthma and a comparison sample without a chronic health condition, and the role of bullying in moderating psychosocial adjustment outcomes for those with asthma. A sample of children with (n = 24) and without asthma (n = 39), and their parents, were recruited from hospital clinics. Parents rated children’s psychosocial adjustment; children provided self-report of bullying victimisation and perpetration; from which co-occurring bully/victim status was derived. No differences in mean perpetration or victimisation were found, but children with asthma were more likely to be bully/victims (involved both as target and perpetrator), compared to those without asthma. Children with asthma who were victims of bullying had greater peer problems and overall adjustment problems; bully/victims did not show this pattern. Children with asthma may be more likely to be bully/victims, and those who are victims of bullying may be at elevated risk for psychosocial adjustment problems and require particular support in this area from school counsellors and psychologists.
Despite nematodes routinely being the most frequent soil- and bryophyte-associated animals in maritime Antarctica, there is a lack of clarity about the influence of warming on their populations in the region. Here, we report the results of a field experiment on Adelaide Island that tested the effects of warming with open-top chambers (OTCs) for 37 months on nematodes associated with the bryophytes Cephaloziella varians and Sanionia uncinata. Over the experiment's duration, OTCs increased the population density of the nematode Plectus belgicae in mats of both bryophytes by six-fold, with four- to seven-fold increases in the abundances of male, female and juvenile P. belgicae in warmed mats, and with the largest effects on the abundances of juveniles. Despite C. varians, which is black in colour, warming to a greater extent than S. uncinata during summer, no interactive effects of OTCs and bryophyte species were recorded on the population density of P. belgicae. Our results corroborate a previous study showing that warming increases Plectus population densities in maritime Antarctic soils, with implications for the region's terrestrial food webs.
The discussion and critical examination of poverty, child poverty and the impact of child poverty on school education in Scotland has intensified in recent years. This has been provoked by the increase in the level of poverty and a greater awareness of the effects of poverty and deprivation. The levels of child poverty have remained more stable but are still disturbingly high. Arguably, a more informed and nuanced understanding of the complexity of these issues has begun to emerge and influence public consciousness. There is now greater cognisance that children are dependents and are affected by the financial resource issues faced by their parents or carers. These challenges can include longterm unemployment or the cycle of ‘low pay, no pay’ (Thompson, 2015). There has been a rise in the level of working poverty in Scotland as the percentage of the workingage population in relative poverty has risen from 48% in 1996– 99 to 59% in 2014– 2017 (Scottish Government, 2019a). These challenges all lead to temporary or longerterm financial insecurity that impact on the lives of children and their readiness to participate in all social and academic aspects of school life.
There has also been an increased focus on research and the collation of information on child poverty and the impact of child poverty on school education. There are numerous ways to measure child poverty and deprivation and there is a substantial body of evidence on attainment and achievement (these will be discussed later in the chapter). There is also evidence that gender and disability are important factors that can be barriers to work and this has an effect on the household income (Congreve and McCormick, 2018). Around 40% of the children living in poverty are in a family with a disabled member, usually an adult. For half of these children, there is no adult working in the household. The children themselves may be the primary or sole carer for a disabled adult: there are approximately 44,000 young carers (young people under 18) in Scotland who care for a friend or a member of the family because of illness, disability, mental health or addiction (Scottish Government, 2018a).
National organisations in several countries have recently released more restrictive guidelines for infective endocarditis prophylaxis, including the American Heart Association 2007 guidelines. Initial studies demonstrated no change in infective endocarditis rates over time; however, a recent United Kingdom study suggested an increase; current paediatric trends are unknown.
Children (<18 years) hospitalised with infective endocarditis at 29 centres participating in the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database from 2003 to 2014 were eligible for inclusion. Our primary analysis focussed on infective endocarditis most directly related to the change in guidelines and included community-acquired cases in those >5 years of age. Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate rates over time indexed to total hospitalisations.
A total of 841 cases were identified. The median age was 13 years (interquartile range 9–15 years). In the pre-guideline period, there was a slight increase in the rate of infective endocarditis by 0.13 cases/10,000 hospitalisations per semi-annual period. In the post-guideline period, the rate of infective endocarditis increased by 0.12 cases/10,000 hospitalisations per semi-annual period. There was no significant difference in the rate of change in the pre- versus post-guidelines period (p=0.895). Secondary analyses in children >5 years of age with CHD and in children hospitalised with any type of infective endocarditis at any age revealed similar results.
We found no significant change in infective endocarditis hospitalisation rates associated with revised prophylaxis guidelines over 11 years across 29 United States children’s hospitals.
This paper provides a metric for determining whether a given pair of English words is perceived to be morphologically related, based on objective measurements of the words’ orthographic, phonetic, and semantic similarity to each other. The metric is developed on the basis of results from a behavioural study in which participants were asked to judge the relative similarity of pairs of words. The metric is intended to help researchers determine which forms in a language plausibly have segments that alternate; as an example, it is applied to the lexicon of English to illustrate its utility in calculating the frequency of alternation of [s] and [ʃ].
Auxinic herbicides are widely used for control of broadleaf weeds in cereal
crops and turfgrass. These herbicides are structurally similar to the
natural plant hormone auxin, and induce several of the same physiological
and biochemical responses at low concentrations. After several decades of
research to understand the auxin signal transduction pathway, the receptors
for auxin binding and resultant biochemical and physiological responses have
recently been discovered in plants. However, the precise mode of action for
the auxinic herbicides is not completely understood despite their extensive
use in agriculture for over six decades. Auxinic herbicide-resistant weed
biotypes offer excellent model species for uncovering the mode of action as
well as resistance to these compounds. Compared with other herbicide
families, the incidence of resistance to auxinic herbicides is relatively
low, with only 29 auxinic herbicide-resistant weed species discovered to
date. The relatively low incidence of resistance to auxinic herbicides has
been attributed to the presence of rare alleles imparting resistance in
natural weed populations, the potential for fitness penalties due to
mutations conferring resistance in weeds, and the complex mode of action of
auxinic herbicides in sensitive dicot plants. This review discusses recent
advances in the auxin signal transduction pathway and its relation to
auxinic herbicide mode of action. Furthermore, comprehensive information
about the genetics and inheritance of auxinic herbicide resistance and case
studies examining mechanisms of resistance in auxinic herbicide-resistant
broadleaf weed biotypes are provided. Within the context of recent findings
pertaining to auxin biology and mechanisms of resistance to auxinic
herbicides, agronomic implications of the evolution of resistance to these
herbicides are discussed in light of new auxinic herbicide-resistant crops
that will be commercialized in the near future.
Sub-Antarctic Marion Island was the site of extensive volcanism as well as glaciation during both the Quaternary and the Holocene. Initial reconstructions suggested a link between deglaciation and the initiation of faulting which, in turn, facilitated lava eruptions during the interglacials. However, our reassessment of the faulting, volcanic rock, and palaeoglacier distribution indicate that these original interpretations were erroneous. Features thought to be due to faulting are shown to be erosional scarps and this significantly changes interpretations of former glacier distribution. Further, the loss of the former ice cap has revealed new information on former glaciers and their flow directions, thereby allowing reconstruction of palaeoglaciers. Our new reconstruction fits with information from invertebrate genetic mapping that suggest some lava outcrops were nunataks and, therefore, refuges during the Last Glacial period. The new findings of glacial landforms in areas previously covered by snow suggest there was a significant ice advance during the Little Ice Age. Although Holocene volcanic rocks overlie and mask much of the glacial evidence, it has been possible to develop a proposed new reconstruction for glaciation, which is presented together with some of the implications.
Predicting the magnitude and rate of weight gain for a given increase of energy intake requires a model of whole-body energy expenditure that includes the energy cost of tissue deposition. Here, I introduce a mathematical framework for modelling energy expenditure that elucidates conceptual problems with the classical Kielanowski method for estimating the efficiencies of body fat and protein deposition. An alternative approach uses the theoretical biochemical efficiencies for protein and fat synthesis in combination with models of energy expenditure that include body fat and protein turnover costs. I illustrate this alternative approach using a simple mathematical model applied to previously published data from growing rats and human infants and compare the simple model results with the classical Kielanowski model. While both models fit the data reasonably well (R2>0·87 in rats and R2>0·67 in infants), the Kielanowski method resulted in parameter estimates that varied widely across experiments, had poor precision, and occasionally produced efficiency estimates greater than 1. In contrast, the new method provided precise parameter values and revealed consistencies across different experiments. The proposed mathematical framework has implications for interpreting studies of animal nutrition as well as providing a roadmap for future modelling efforts.
Landforms with the appearance of cryoplanation terraces were studied on Alexander Island in an attempt to better understand their formation and growth. Developed on sub-horizontal sedimentary rocks, with 360° exposure around a nunatak, the terraces show a distinct equatorward orientational preference and an increase in terrace size with elevation. Available data fail to indicate any evidence of freeze-thaw weathering and information relating to present-day debris transport is singularly absent. Thermal data from the rock exposures showed variability that could cause thermal fatigue but no rates of change of temperature commensurate with thermal shock were recorded. Terrace development appears to be connected with lithological differences in the local sandstones, with growth along sedimentary junctions. Although presently in a permafrost environment, the available information on these landforms does not appear to be compatible with that generally accepted for cryoplanation terraces.