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This article investigates the implications of recent research findings that establish that older victims of crime are less likely to obtain procedural justice than other age groups. It explores original empirical data from the United Kingdom that finds evidence of a systemic failure amongst agencies to identify vulnerability in the older population and to put in place appropriate support mechanisms to allow older victims to participate fully in the justice system. The article discusses how the legally defined gateways to additional support, which are currently relied upon by many common law jurisdictions, disadvantage older victims and require reimagining. It argues that international protocols, especially the current European Union Directive on victims’ rights, are valuable guides in this process of re-conceptualisation. To reduce further the inequitable treatment of older victims, the article advocates for jurisdictions to introduce a presumption in favour of special assistance for older people participating in the justice system.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
The so-called Middle Settlement (Mellembygden) of Norse/Viking Greenland has received far less attention than either of its larger Eastern and Western counterparts. The Greenlandic Norse occupation is nominally taken to date between AD 985 and about AD 1450 and it is generally assumed that the Western Settlement was abandoned prior to the Eastern, but where the Middle Settlement fits into the pattern temporally has hitherto been completely unknown. This paper presents the first absolute dating evidence from the Middle Settlement. In addition to providing the results (14C, δ13C, δ15N) of a radiocarbon dating and stable isotope measurement program from domesticated (Bos, Ovis/Capra) and wild (Rangifer) animal bone and cultural-environmental (coastal, possibly midden) samples, the paper also addresses some problems of 14C estimation for the period of Norse occupation in Greenland. Investigations show a Medieval Scandinavian presence close to the start of the conventional landnám period (after AD 985) and with occupation continuing up to at least the 14th century AD. The start of this activity, found at 2 sites, bears comparison with various locations in both the Eastern and Western Settlement areas. The terminal phase of activity in the Middle Settlement is represented at 1 site only, but despite this limitation, it shows that the Norse may have been present for most of the period that they occupied sites in both the Western and Eastern settlements. Caribou bone from separate contexts that also contained Thule Inuit material proves useful in indicating dates for a probable post-Norse Inuit presence. The position of age estimates on the calibration curve underscores the need to look critically at such evidence when making chronological inference during the Norse period owing to the existence of plateaus and wiggles. The inclusion of samples from both domesticated and wild fauna considered to be possibly modern, yet reported from archaeological assemblages, provides a warning to archaeozoologists to be especially vigilant when considering the potential non-contemporaneity of material.
Fe bioavailability can be manipulated by the nutritional composition of a meal. Ascorbic acid and unidentified components of meat, fish and poultry, but particularly beef, all appear to enhance the absorption of non-haem Fe. The aim of the present study is to identify whether extracts of green-lipped mussels (GLM; Perna canaliculus) enhance non-haem Fe absorption in Caco-2 cells and to compare the effect with that of beef. Raw GLM and raw beef homogenates were digested in vitro with pepsin at pH 2, and pancreatin and bile salts at pH 7. Tracer 55Fe was used to measure cellular Fe uptake. Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control and egg albumin, exposed to the same in vitro digestion process, was used as a negative control. Caco-2 cell monolayers were incubated with treatments for 60 min. All values were standardised per μg of GLM, egg albumin, beef or ascorbic acid. The results showed that ascorbic acid enhanced non-haem Fe absorption to the highest degree. Beef and GLM digestates both significantly enhanced Fe absorption compared with egg albumin. In conclusion, GLM digestate significantly enhances non-haem Fe uptake in Caco-2 cells with a similar magnitude to that of beef.
Fundoscopy is viewed as a difficult or impossible task by many students and physicians. We have used a novel seven-step approach to teach trainees to use the ophthalmoscope. The technique is based on the premise that success is most easily achieved if the necessary motor skills are mastered first. A step by step approach will enable others to teach their trainees to attain the ability to routinely view the fundi of their pediatric patients.
Step 1 involves examination of the trainee’s fundi to ensure there is no impediment to their success. In Step 2 the student examines the teacher. This identifies major errors. The next step teaches the trainee how to hold the ophthalmoscope. Step 4 gets the learner to read a journal article through the ophthalmoscope. In Step 5 they examine the teacher’s eyes again and with a little help they are always successful. In the last two steps an older patient is first examined and finally the student examines a young child.
This method differs from most other approaches by leaving the cognitive component of ophthalmoscopy until the student is comfortable with handling the instrument. It has been uniformly successful among our students and residents.
Alaska currently relies on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System for the assessment of the potential for wildfire and although it provides invaluable information it is designed as a single system that does not account for the varied fuel types and drying conditions (day length, permafrost, decomposition rate, and soil type) that occur across the North American boreal forest. The FWI System is completely weather-based using noontime measurements of precipitation, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed. The most common problem observed with the FWI system is in the initialisation and need for calibration of one of the moisture codes that make up the FWI system, the Drought Code (DC), which is representative of the deeper organic soil layers and has a 53 day lag period. SAR data represent an innovative tool to improve the current weather-based fire danger system of interior Alaska by initialising the spring values of DC, calibrating the codes throughout the season and providing additional point-source data. Using radar backscatter values from several recently burned boreal forests, an algorithm was developed that related backscatter to DC. The authors then demonstrated the application and validation of this algorithm at independent test sites with good correlation to in situ soil moisture and rainfall variations.
Recency discrimination has been conceptualized as an executive ability
by some investigators and as an aspect of episodic memory by others. We
compared the performance of 261 neurologically healthy adults on a recency
discrimination task (RDT) with their performance on measures of executive
functioning and explicit memory. Mean z-transformed raw scores
were used to construct indices of visual and verbal explicit memory,
fluency, and executive functioning. Analyses revealed that RDT performance
correlated more closely with visual (r = 0.32; p <
0.001) and verbal memory (r = 0.25; p < 0.001) than
with fluency (r = 0.16; p < 0.05) and executive
functioning (r = 0.13; p < 0.05). These findings
suggest that recency discrimination might be better understood as an
aspect of episodic memory that is subserved primarily by hippocampal and
medial temporal structures than as an executive function that is subserved
primarily by prefrontal cortex. (JINS, 2007, 13,
As an isolated island group lying off the NW European mainland which was uninhabited until the mid-first millennium AD, the Faroes offer a unique opportunity to study natural processes of Holocene ecosystem development in a region where anthropogenic activity is usually a complicating factor. In this paper new radiocarbon dates and pollen-analytical data from the island of Sandoy, in the centre of the Faroes archipelago, are presented. Together with existing pollen and plant macrofossil records, these data allow a reconstruction of patterns of Holocene vegetational and edaphic change. Basal peat dates indicate that large areas of blanket mire were established long before the first human settlement, demonstrating conclusively that human impact is not necessary for the development of such ecosystems. The timing of the initiation of the blanket peats varies markedly, both across the Faroes as a whole and at a landscape scale, with dates distributed evenly over 9000 years. This suggests that, in the Faroes at least, pedogenesis was more important than climatic change in determining the timing of the spread of blanket peat systems.
There is increasing interest in collecting morbidity data from general practice. We describe our experience from Northumberland MEDICS, one of the first morbidity data collection projects in the UK. All Northumberland practices were invited to participate. Data were initially collected every 3–6 months and included the prevalence of chronic diseases, disability in the over 75s, and recording of health markers, such as smoking status. Thirty-three out of 52 practices participated. There was marked variation in prevalences and recording of health markers between practices. Recorded prevalence of hypertension and diabetes increased steadily from 1994 to 1998. Outcomes, judged by the original objectives, were mixed. However, as the project evolved, evidence emerged that MEDICS was contributing to a culture in which the use of data from practice clinical systems to improve patient care has become a core objective. Key lessons from our experience include appreciating: the importance of data quality and minimising workload for practices; the difficulties practices face in recording morbidity data consistently and systematically; the limitations of GP morbidity data for health needs assessment and commissioning at district level; and the need to focus on providing useful and relevant data for individual practices. MEDICS now covers all 53 Northumberland practices. The project focuses on recording and analysing data to help practices improve structured patient care. Increasingly data collection in general practice in Northumberland is seen as a core activity with the current dataset linking closely with local priorities and reflecting national initiatives such as Clinical Governance and National Service Frameworks.
As someone fortunate to have had some success in the business of technology, from time to time journalists and researchers contact me to ask about my experiences in the semiconductor industry here in northern California. Most have sought in some way to define and understand the birth of this place called Silicon Valley. This chapter is, in part, an addendum to and clarification of their efforts. Charting the establishment of this dynamic is fundamentally different than appreciating its operation. We have tried to capture what we feel are the crucial elements of the early history of Silicon Valley through the retelling and reexamination of the experiences of Shockley, Fairchild, and Intel.
We hold that the central element in the history of Silicon Valley is the founding of a previously unknown type of regional, dynamic, high-technology economy. A set of transformations took place in which scientists and engineers of this particular economy learned to organize themselves and their businesses differently – transforming science into business – to take advantage of a significant technological opportunity. These transformations involved learning to build firms and markets in ways unique to high-technology products, and often unique to the particular product at hand. Central to these developments were the size and nature of the technological opportunity that induced it; more than government contracts, university advocacy, or sunny weather, the opportunity defined the creative response.
The literature on African pollination biology is reviewed. It is found that relatively little work has been done on pollination biology in Africa, and a very small proportion of pollination relationships has so far been studied. Much of the research which has been done is of an evolutionary nature. Very little work has been conducted at the community level and comparatively little applied work, either to agriculture or conservation, was encountered. Most research has been conducted in South Africa, in particular, from the Cape region, which is the only part of Africa for which a reasonably comprehensive body of work on pollination biology exists. In a number of instances results of African studies challenge conventional understanding of pollination biology. It is argued that as more work on pollination is done in Africa, more differences between African systems and the rest of the world, particularly the North temperate regions will be found and changes to the overall conceptualization of pollination systems in different ecosystems are likely to ensue. A more thorough understanding of pollination biology would also make an important contribution to food security and conservation of biodiversity on the continent. Scientists working in fields other than pollination biology, and amateurs, should be encouraged to contribute to the groundwork of African pollination biology by the documentation of pollination relationships.