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In this article, we reflect on the pernicious nature of rhetoric aimed at soliciting Black community support for predatory urban development schemes. Highlighting recent examples of Urban One Casino + Resort’s development campaign in Richmond, Virginia, and the messaging leveraged by political leaders on behalf of SoFi stadium and the Intuit Dome in Inglewood, California, we find that discursive moves made by public and private stakeholders reflect what we call the “predatory rhetorics of urban development.” We argue that these rhetorics intend to enlist divested Black communities as supporters of development projects that concentrate wealth and power in the hands of economic and political elites. They do so by playing on Black desires for social and economic inclusion into American middle-class community life. Four common threads of predatory rhetoric appear across both contexts. They are 1) seizing the real needs and concerns of stigmatized places, 2) relying on representational politics to mitigate issues of trust, 3) the neoliberal framing of American internal colonization as a problem that requires extractive private development solutions and, finally, 4) dissimulating intra-community class interests to consolidate “Black needs.” We reflect on the outcomes supported by these rhetorics across both development projects and raise several points of further consideration as we hope for more organized responses to such rhetorics in the future.
Neurocognitive testing may advance the goal of predicting near-term suicide risk. The current study examined whether performance on a Go/No-go (GNG) task, and computational modeling to extract latent cognitive variables, could enhance prediction of suicide attempts within next 90 days, among individuals at high-risk for suicide.
136 Veterans at high-risk for suicide previously completed a computer-based GNG task requiring rapid responding (Go) to target stimuli, while withholding responses (No-go) to infrequent foil stimuli; behavioral variables included false alarms to foils (failure to inhibit) and missed responses to targets. We conducted a secondary analysis of these data, with outcomes defined as actual suicide attempt (ASA), other suicide-related event (OtherSE) such as interrupted/aborted attempt or preparatory behavior, or neither (noSE), within 90-days after GNG testing, to examine whether GNG variables could improve ASA prediction over standard clinical variables. A computational model (linear ballistic accumulator, LBA) was also applied, to elucidate cognitive mechanisms underlying group differences.
On GNG, increased miss rate selectively predicted ASA, while increased false alarm rate predicted OtherSE (without ASA) within the 90-day follow-up window. In LBA modeling, ASA (but not OtherSE) was associated with decreases in decisional efficiency to targets, suggesting differences in the evidence accumulation process were specifically associated with upcoming ASA.
These findings suggest that GNG may improve prediction of near-term suicide risk, with distinct behavioral patterns in those who will attempt suicide within the next 90 days. Computational modeling suggests qualitative differences in cognition in individuals at near-term risk of suicide attempt.
Complications from pulmonary hypertension are one of the leading contributors to morbidity and mortality post-cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children with CHD. Pulmonary vasodilator therapies are commonly used post-operatively, but the optimal target patient population, therapy choice, timing of therapy initiation, and duration of therapy are not well defined.
We used PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies from 2000 to 2020 investigating the use of pulmonary vasodilator therapy post-cardiopulmonary bypass in children aged 0–18 years. To ensure eligibility criteria, studies were systematically reviewed by two independent reviewers.
We identified 26 studies of 42,971 children across four medication classes; 23 were single centre, 14 were prospective, and 11 involved randomisation (four of which employed a placebo-control arm). A disproportionate number of children were from a single retrospective study of 41,872 patients. Definitions varied, but change in pulmonary haemodynamics was the most common primary outcome, used in 14 studies. Six studies had clinical endpoints, with mortality the primary endpoint for two studies. Treatment with inhaled nitric oxide, iloprost, and sildenafil all resulted in improved haemodynamics in specific cohorts of children with post-operative pulmonary hypertension, although improved outcomes were not consistently demonstrated across all treated children. Iloprost may be a cheaper alternative to inhaled nitric oxide with similar haemodynamic response.
Studies were predominantly single-centre, a control arm was rarely used in randomised studies, and haemodynamic endpoints varied significantly. Further research is needed to reduce post-operative morbidity and mortality from pulmonary hypertension in children with CHD.
Increased risk donors in paediatric heart transplantation have characteristics that may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission despite negative serologic testing. However, the risk of disease transmission is low, and refusing an IRD offer may increase waitlist mortality. We sought to determine the risks of declining an initial IRD organ offer.
Methods and results:
We performed a retrospective analysis of candidates waitlisted for isolated PHT using 20072017 United Network of Organ Sharing datasets. Match runs identified candidates receiving IRD offers. Competing risks analysis was used to determine mortality risk for those that declined an initial IRD offer with stratified Cox regression to estimate the survival benefit associated with accepting initial IRD offers. Overall, 238/1067 (22.3%) initial IRD offers were accepted. Candidates accepting an IRD offer were younger (7.2 versus 9.8 years, p < 0.001), more often female (50 versus 41%, p = 0.021), more often listed status 1A (75.6 versus 61.9%, p < 0.001), and less likely to require mechanical bridge to PHT (16% versus 23%, p = 0.036). At 1- and 5-year follow-up, cumulative mortality was significantly lower for candidates who accepted compared to those that declined (6% versus 13% 1-year mortality and 15% versus 25% 5-year mortality, p = 0.0033). Decline of an IRD offer was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for mortality of 1.87 (95% CI 1.24, 2.81, p < 0.003).
IRD organ acceptance is associated with a substantial survival benefit. Increasing acceptance of IRD organs may provide a targetable opportunity to decrease waitlist mortality in PHT.
Substance use disorders are highly prevalent, affecting millions of Americans directly (social, occupational, and health problems) and indirectly (billions of dollars in health care costs and lost revenues due to disability). This section briefly introduces the chemical classification and neurobehavioral properties of the most commonly misused substances.
A multi-disciplinary expert group met to discuss vitamin D deficiency in the UK and strategies for improving population intakes and status. Changes to UK Government advice since the 1st Rank Forum on Vitamin D (2009) were discussed, including rationale for setting a reference nutrient intake (10 µg/d; 400 IU/d) for adults and children (4+ years). Current UK data show inadequate intakes among all age groups and high prevalence of low vitamin D status among specific groups (e.g. pregnant women and adolescent males/females). Evidence of widespread deficiency within some minority ethnic groups, resulting in nutritional rickets (particularly among Black and South Asian infants), raised particular concern. Latest data indicate that UK population vitamin D intakes and status reamain relatively unchanged since Government recommendations changed in 2016. Vitamin D food fortification was discussed as a potential strategy to increase population intakes. Data from dose–response and dietary modelling studies indicate dairy products, bread, hens’ eggs and some meats as potential fortification vehicles. Vitamin D3 appears more effective than vitamin D2 for raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, which has implications for choice of fortificant. Other considerations for successful fortification strategies include: (i) need for ‘real-world’ cost information for use in modelling work; (ii) supportive food legislation; (iii) improved consumer and health professional understanding of vitamin D’s importance; (iv) clinical consequences of inadequate vitamin D status and (v) consistent communication of Government advice across health/social care professions, and via the food industry. These areas urgently require further research to enable universal improvement in vitamin D intakes and status in the UK population.
Paediatric cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass induces substantial physiologic changes that contribute to post-operative morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload and oedema are prevalent complications, routinely treated with diuretics. The optimal diuretic choice, timing of initiation, dose, and interval remain largely unknown.
To guide clinical practice and future studies, we used PubMed and EMBASE to systematically review the existing literature of clinical trials involving diuretics following cardiac surgery from 2000 to 2020 in children aged 0–18 years. Studies were assessed by two reviewers to ensure that they met eligibility criteria.
We identified nine studies of 430 children across four medication classes. Five studies were retrospective, and four were prospective, two of which included randomisation. All were single centre. There were five primary endpoints – urine output, acute kidney injury, fluid balance, change in serum bicarbonate level, and required dose of diuretic. Included studies showed early post-operative diuretic resistance, suggesting higher initial doses. Two studies of ethacrynic acid showed increased urine output and lower diuretic requirement compared to furosemide. Children receiving peritoneal dialysis were less likely to develop fluid overload than those receiving furosemide. Chlorothiazide, acetazolamide, and tolvaptan demonstrated potential benefit as adjuncts to traditional diuretic regimens.
Early diuretic resistance is seen in children following cardiopulmonary bypass. Ethacrynic acid appears superior to furosemide. Adjunct diuretic therapies may provide additional benefit. Study populations were heterogeneous and endpoints varied. Standardised, validated endpoints and pragmatic trial designs may allow investigators to determine the optimal diuretic, timing of initiation, dose, and interval to improve post-operative outcomes.
Targeted drug development efforts in patients with CHD are needed to standardise care, improve outcomes, and limit adverse events in the post-operative period. To identify major gaps in knowledge that can be addressed by drug development efforts and provide a rationale for current clinical practice, this review evaluates the evidence behind the most common medication classes used in the post-operative care of children with CHD undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE from 2000 to 2019 using a controlled vocabulary and keywords related to diuretics, vasoactives, sedatives, analgesics, pulmonary vasodilators, coagulation system medications, antiarrhythmics, steroids, and other endocrine drugs. We included studies of drugs given post-operatively to children with CHD undergoing repair or palliation with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We identified a total of 127 studies with 51,573 total children across medication classes. Most studies were retrospective cohorts at single centres. There is significant age- and disease-related variability in drug disposition, efficacy, and safety.
In this study, we discovered major gaps in knowledge for each medication class and identified areas for future research. Advances in data collection through electronic health records, novel trial methods, and collaboration can aid drug development efforts in standardising care, improving outcomes, and limiting adverse events in the post-operative period.
Infants with moderate-to-severe CHD frequently undergo cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in childhood. Morbidity and mortality are highest in those who develop post-operative low cardiac output syndrome. Vasoactive and inotropic medications are mainstays of treatment for these children, despite limited evidence supporting their use.
To help inform clinical practice, as well as the conduct of future trials, we performed a systematic review of existing literature on inotropes and vasoactives in children after cardiac surgery using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We included studies from 2000 to 2020, and the patient population was defined as birth – 18 years of age. Two reviewers independently reviewed studies to determine final eligibility.
The final analysis included 37 papers. Collectively, selected studies reported on 12 different vasoactive and inotropic medications in 2856 children. Overall evidence supporting the use of these drugs in children after cardiopulmonary bypass was limited. The majority of studies were small with 30/37 (81%) enrolling less than 100 patients, 29/37 (78%) were not randomised, and safety and efficacy endpoints differed widely, limiting the ability to combine data for meta-analyses.
Vasoactive and inotropic support remain critical parts of post-operative care for children after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. There is a paucity of data for the selection and dosing of vasoactives and inotropes for these patients. Despite the knowledge gaps that remain, numerous recent innovations create opportunities to rethink the conduct of clinical trials in this high-risk population.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems have developed protocols for prehospital activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory for patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to decrease first-medical-contact-to-balloon time (FMC2B). The rate of “false positive” prehospital activations is high. In order to decrease this rate and expedite care for patients with true STEMI, the American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) developed the Mission Lifeline PreAct STEMI algorithm, which was implemented in Los Angeles County (LAC; California USA) in 2015. The hypothesis of this study was that implementation of the PreAct algorithm would increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of prehospital activation.
This is an observational pre-/post-study of the effect of the implementation of the PreAct algorithm for patients with suspected STEMI transported to one of five STEMI Receiving Centers (SRCs) within the LAC Regional System. The primary outcome was the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The secondary outcome was FMC2B.
A total of 1,877 patients were analyzed for the primary outcome in the pre-intervention period and 405 patients in the post-intervention period. There was an overall decrease in cardiac catheterization laboratory activations, from 67% in the pre-intervention period to 49% in the post-intervention period (95% CI for the difference, -14% to -22%). The overall rate of cardiac catheterization declined in post-intervention period as compared the pre-intervention period, from 34% to 30% (95% CI, for the difference -7.6% to 0.4%), but actually increased for subjects who had activation (48% versus 58%; 95% CI, 4.6%-15.0%). Implementation of the PreAct algorithm was associated with an increase in the PPV of activation for PCI or CABG from 37.9% to 48.6%. The overall odds ratio (OR) associated with the intervention was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). The effect of the intervention was to decrease variability between medical centers. There was no associated change in average FMC2B.
The implementation of the PreAct algorithm in the LAC EMS system was associated with an overall increase in the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation.
The air gap technique (AGT) is an approach to radiation dose optimisation during fluoroscopy where an “air gap” is used in place of an anti-scatter grid to reduce scatter irradiation. The AGT is effective in adults but remains largely untested in children. Effects are expected to vary depending on patient size and the amount of scatter irradiation produced.
Fluoroscopy and cineangiography were performed using a Phillips Allura Fluoroscope on tissue simulation anthropomorphic phantoms representing a neonate, 5-year-old, and teenager. Monte Carlo simulations were then used to estimate effective radiation dose first using a standard recommended imaging approach and then repeated using the AGT. Objective image quality assessments were performed using an image quality phantom.
Effective radiation doses for the neonate and 5-year-old phantom increased consistently (2–92%) when the AGT was used compared to the standard recommended imaging approaches in which the anti-scatter grid is removed at baseline. In the teenage phantom, the AGT reduced effective doses by 5–59%, with greater dose reductions for imaging across the greater thoracic dimension of lateral projection. The AGT increased geometric magnification but with no detectable change in image blur or contrast differentiation.
The AGT is an effective approach for dose reduction in larger patients, particularly for lateral imaging. Compared to the current dose optimisation guidelines, the technique may be harmful in smaller children where scatter irradiation is minimal.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
This study aimed to estimate the number of new cancer cases attributable to diet among adults aged 30–84 years in France in 2015, where convincing or probable evidence of a causal association exists, and, in a secondary analysis, where at least limited but suggestive evidence of a causal association exists. Cancer cases attributable to diet were estimated assuming a 10-year latency period. Dietary intake data were obtained from the 2006 French National Nutrition and Health Survey. Counterfactual scenarios of dietary intake were based on dietary guidelines. Corresponding risk relation estimates were obtained from meta-analyses, cohort studies and one case–control study. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the French Network of Cancer Registries. Nationally, unfavourable dietary habits led to 16 930 new cancer cases, representing 5·4 % of all new cancer cases. Low intake of fruit and dietary fibre was the largest contributor to this burden, being responsible for 4787 and 4389 new cancer cases, respectively. If this is expanded to dietary component and cancer pairs with at least limited but suggestive evidence of a causal association, 36 049 new cancer cases, representing 11·6 % of all new cancer cases, were estimated to be attributable to diet. These findings suggest that unfavourable dietary habits lead to a substantial number of new cancer cases in France; however, there is a large degree of uncertainty as to the number of cancers attributable to diet, including through indirect mechanisms such as obesity, and therefore additional research is needed to determine how diet affects cancer risk.
The ventricular assist device is being increasingly used as a “bridge-to-transplant” option in children with heart failure who have failed medical management. Care for this medically complex population must be optimised, including through concomitant pharmacotherapy. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic alterations affecting pharmacotherapy are increasingly discovered in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, another form of mechanical circulatory support. Similarities between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist devices support the hypothesis that similar alterations may exist in ventricular assist device-supported patients. We conducted a literature review to assess the current data available on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in children with ventricular assist devices. We found two adult and no paediatric pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies in ventricular assist device-supported patients. While mechanisms may be partially extrapolated from children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, dedicated investigation of the paediatric ventricular assist device population is crucial given the inherent differences between the two forms of mechanical circulatory support, and pathophysiology that is unique to these patients. Commonly used drugs such as anticoagulants and antibiotics have narrow therapeutic windows with devastating consequences if under-dosed or over-dosed. Clinical studies are urgently needed to improve outcomes and maximise the potential of ventricular assist devices in this vulnerable population.
Cardiac rhabdomyomas are the most common tumours in children and are typically seen in association with the tuberous sclerosis complex. Although benign and often associated with spontaneous regression, in rare circumstances surgical resection is indicated to relieve obstruction or other mass-related effects. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for the treatment of other tumour sub-types associated with tuberous sclerosis. Here we report rapid regression of several massive cardiac rhadomyomas in two neonates with the use of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor sirolimus.
While a long history of experimental data shows that aerial thermal images can reveal a wide range of both surface and subsurface archaeological features, technological hurdles have largely prevented more widespread use of this promising prospecting method. However, recent advances in the sophistication of thermal cameras, the reliability of commercial drones, and the growing power of photogrammetric software packages are revolutionizing archaeologists' ability to collect, process, and analyze aerial thermal imagery. This paper provides an overview of the theory behind aerial thermography in archaeology, as well as a discussion of an emerging set of methods developed by the authors for undertaking successful surveys. Summarizing investigations at archaeological sites in North America, the Mediterranean, and the Near East, our results illustrate some contexts in which aerial thermography is very effective, as well as cases in which ground cover, soil composition, or the depth and character of archaeological features present challenges. In addition, we highlight novel approaches for filtering out noise caused by vegetation, as well as methods for improving feature visibility using radiometric thermal imagery.
Resistance to herbicides and the lack of viable control options have led to an interest in increasing the role of crop competition as a weed management tool in water-seeded rice production. Weed-suppressive rice cultivars have been suggested as a tool that could improve weed control and reduce the reliance of growers on herbicides. Field studies were conducted at Biggs, CA, in 1999 and 2000 with six to eight semidwarf rice cultivars to identify water-seeded rice traits related to the suppression of watergrass growth. Cultivars S-201 and M-302 were the most suppressive in both years. The dry weight (DW) of watergrass grown with the most suppressive cultivar was only 16% in 1999 and 57% in 2000 of the DW of watergrass grown with the least suppressive cultivar. Rice leaf area and root DW in weed-free plots were linearly related to watergrass DW in both years. Weed-suppressive traits were not inversely correlated with rice yields in monoculture; competitive cultivars also had high yields. This study suggests that an indirect selection program, based on traits that can be identified early in the season under weed-free conditions, has great potential for developing more competitive cultivars for water-seeded rice.
California arrowhead is a broadleaf weed widespread in water-seeded rice. Bensulfuron is the only herbicide currently available for use throughout the California rice growing region that provides complete control of California arrowhead; however, resistance to bensulfuron has been detected in California arrowhead and in several other weed species. Growers have herbicide alternatives for weed species other than California arrowhead but continue to use bensulfuron year after year for control because they believe California arrowhead reduces rice yields. However, damage thresholds have not been determined for this weed, and the crop may be able to tolerate relatively high California arrowhead densities. In this work, the damage thresholds for California arrowhead were determined in field and greenhouse experiments. Water-seeded rice was grown in mixture with California arrowhead in a 1992 greenhouse experiment and in field experiments in 1992 and 1998. Rice tiller density and grain yields were not affected by California arrowhead densities up to 200 plants m−2 in any year. Rice was taller than California arrowhead throughout the growing season in all experiments, and the weed senesced well before rice maturity. The ability of the crop to overtop the weed and grow weed-free during the latter part of the season may explain why California arrowhead is such a weak competitor with water-seeded rice. The results suggest that growers may be able to tolerate California arrowhead densities up to 200 plants m−2 without detectable yield losses. Implications for weed management are discussed.