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Field studies were conducted from 2000 through 2002 to evaluate the effects of atrazine, pendimethalin, and trifluralin applied alone or in combination followed by cultivation when weeds and grain sorghum were less than 7 cm tall (early postemergence [EPOST]) or when weeds and grain sorghum were 10 to 15 cm tall (late postemergence [LPOST]). Atrazine plus pendimethalin applied EPOST caused 9 to 14% sorghum stunting all 3 yr while atrazine plus trifluralin applied EPOST caused 1 to 4% grain sorghum stunting. When applied LPOST, atrazine plus pendimethalin or trifluralin resulted in no greater than 3% stunting. Tumble pigweed was controlled at least 99% with atrazine plus pendimethalin or trifluralin applied EPOST or LPOST, whereas Texas panicum was controlled at least 97% with atrazine plus pendimethalin or trifluralin applied EPOST, and 76 to 100% with LPOST application. Sorghum yields were reduced with atrazine plus pendimethalin applied EPOST when compared with all herbicide combinations in one of 3 yr.
Field studies were conducted from 1996 through 1998 to evaluate control of broadleaf signalgrass and slender amaranth by clethodim, fluazifop-P-butyl, and fluazifop-P-butyl plus fenoxaprop-P-ethyl applied alone, in combination with pyrithiobac, or sequentially with pyrithiobac. Broadleaf signalgrass control with graminicides alone was 75 to 100%. Although broadleaf signalgrass control with clethodim was not reduced by pyrithiobac, control with fluazifop-P-butyl and fluazifop-P-butyl plus fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was reduced by pyrithiobac. Pyrithiobac controlled slender amaranth 85 to 100% when applied alone. However, slender amaranth control by pyrithiobac was inconsistent when pyrithiobac was applied in mixture or sequentially with graminicides. A reduction in slender amaranth control may have resulted from a combination of reduced graminicide efficacy and interference caused by broadleaf signalgrass with slender amaranth (pyrithiobac alone). Cotton yields were highest when pyrithiobac was applied 24 h after graminicides.
Five field studies on sandy soils with ≤ 1% organic matter in south Texas showed that halosulfuron at 0.066 kg/ha preemergence (PRE) controlled ≥ 92% purple nutsedge and at 0.066 kg/ha postemergence (POST) controlled purple nutsedge 77 to 95%. Sulfentrazone at 0.11 to 0.28 kg/ha PRE or POST controlled purple nutsedge < 65% at one location but > 75% at two other locations. Poor control at the one location may have been due to a lack of early-season rainfall or irrigation. Potatoes were stunted 5 to 26% with halosulfuron PRE, whereas POST treatments caused 7 to 40% stunting. Sulfentrazone at 0.11 to 0.28 kg/ha applied PRE or POST caused 2 to 38% stunting. ‘Atlantic’ potato stunting with sulfentrazone POST at 0.14 to 0.28 kg/ha was ≥ 20%, whereas ‘Snowden’ and ‘1625’ potatoes were stunted ≤ 20%. Potato yields were reduced 65 and 39% with sulfentrazone and halosulfuron POST, respectively, at the high rates, but yield reductions occurred with all POST treatments on Atlantic potatoes 10- to 20-cm tall. Halosulfuron PRE at 0.033 kg/ha and sulfentrazone PRE at 0.14 kg/ha did not reduce yields; however, all other treatments of halosulfuron and sulfentrazone reduced potato yields.
Field studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 at seven locations in south Texas to evaluate flufenacet plus metribuzin for weed control and corn tolerance. Texas panicum control with flufenacet plus metribuzin was variable with less than 70% control in 1999 and greater than 75% control in 2000. Palmer amaranth and pitted morningglory control ranged from 41 to 100%. Corn stunting (4 to 13%) was noted in soils with greater than 75% sand. Corn yields with flufenacet and metribuzin combinations were increased up to 19% over the untreated check where stunting was not observed.
Field studies were conducted from 1995 through 1998 to evaluate citronmelon control in peanut with various preplant and preemergence combinations of dimethenamid, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, lactofen, metolachlor, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin. Pendimethalin alone or in combination with imazethapyr, metolachlor, or dimethenamid did not control citronmelon. Flumioxazin alone, pendimethalin plus flumioxazin, or pendimethalin followed by (fb) lactofen controlled citronmelon at least 85% early season. Pendimethalin fb lactofen controlled citronmelon at least 75% late season, whereas all other herbicide treatments controlled less than 70%.
Field studies were conducted from 1995 through 1998 to evaluate citronmelon control with postemergence (POST) herbicides. Imazapic at any application timing and late postemergence (LPOST) applications of 2,4-DB were the only herbicides that provided >80% control of citronmelon late season. Other herbicides such as acifluorfen, imazethapyr, lactofen, and pyridate provided acceptable (>75%) early-season control of citronmelon, but control was inadequate at harvest.
S-metolachlor was compared with metolachlor at four field locations in Texas during the 1996 and 1997 growing seasons in terms of yellow nutsedge control, peanut injury, and peanut yield. S-metolachlor caused peanut injury comparable to metolachlor when either herbicide was applied preplant incorporated or preemergence. Yellow nutsedge control was similar and peanut yields were comparable with the two herbicides. At one location where yellow nutsedge failed to develop, the untreated check produced one of the highest yields.
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