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An integrated study of sedimentological, sequence-stratigraphic and palaeodispersal analysis was applied to the Upper-Permian clastic sedimentary succession in the Northern Sydney Basin, Australia. The succession is subdivided into fifteen facies and three facies associations. The facies associations are further subdivided into eight sub-facies associations. The sedimentary evolution involves progradation from delta-front to delta-plain to fluvial depositional environments, with a significant increase in sediment grain size across the unconformable contact that separates the deltaic from the overlying fluvial system. In contrast to the delta front that is wave/storm- and/or river-influenced, the delta plain is significantly affected by tides, with the impact of tidal currents decreasing up-sequence in the delta plain. The general lack of wave-influenced sedimentary structures suggests low wave energy in the delta plain. The abrupt termination of the tidal impact in the fluvial realm relates to the steep topographic gradients and high sediment supply, which accompanied the uplift of the New England Orogen. The sequence-stratigraphic framework includes highstand (deltaic forest and topset) and lowstand (fluvial topset) systems tracts, separated by a subaerial unconformity. In contrast to most of the mud-rich modern counterparts, this is an example of a sand-rich tidally influenced deltaic system, developed adjacent to the source region. This investigation presents a depositional model for tidal successions in regions of tectonic uplift and confinement.
In her magisterial Plato's Philosophers, Catherine Zuckert presents a radically new interpretation of Plato's dialogues. In doing so, she insists we must overcome reading them through the lens of Aristotle, whose influence has obscured the true nature of Plato's philosophy. However, in her works dealing with Aristotle's political science, Zuckert indicates several advantages of his approach to understanding politics. In this article, I explore the reasons why Zuckert finds Aristotle a problematic guide to Plato's philosophy as well as what she sees as the character and benefits of Aristotle's political theory. I conclude by suggesting a possible reconciliation between Zuckert's Aristotle and her Plato, insofar as both the Socrates whom Plato made his hero and Aristotle agree that political communities will rarely direct citizens toward virtue by means of law and that we must instead look to informal means of doing so.
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
As East Asia rapidly develops, greater demands are being placed on governments to efficiently supply energy to sustain economic growth. Simultaneously, public awareness of environmental issues has placed new imperatives on energy planning. To meet these challenges, the concept of sustainable development must be incorporated into energy security strategies in order to balance the three priorities of energy security, economic growth and environmental protection. Alternative energy forms a cornerstone of such a strategy. From a brief examination of the contemporary developments in alternative energy sources in East Asia, this chapter shows that the use of “nuclear renaissance” for describing the energy future of the region is still premature, given that progress in this field has not been uniform and has largely stagnated. Instead, renewable energy developments show better progress and hold greater promise for East Asia. Instead of a “nuclear renaissance”, a “renewables renaissance” may be taking hold in the region.
Continuing debates on energy security have been affected by two important global developments. First, the December 2009 Copenhagen Summit failed to reach a global consensus on a concrete plan to curb carbon emissions. As such, socioeconomically driven national self interests have led many states to focus on national-level carbon emissions reduction and energy efficiency strategies.
Second, as the world economy has begun to recover, it may lead to increasing energy demand. Since this increase follows patterns of population growth and development in Asia, many energy economists point to the long-term upward trend in energy prices. Michael Quah from Singapore's Energy Studies Institute has forecast that rising energy prices will continue despite erratic hydrocarbon prices and an uneven economic recovery.
A retrospective case–case control study was conducted, including 60 cases with daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant enterococci (DNS-VRE) matched to cases with daptomycin-susceptible VRE and to uninfected controls (1:1:3 ratio). Immunosuppression, presence of comorbid conditions, and prior exposure to antimicrobials were independent predictors of DNS-VRE, although prior daptomycin exposure occurred rarely. In summary, a case–case control study identified independent risk factors for the isolation of DNS-VRE: immunosuppression, multiple comorbid conditions, and prior exposures to cephalosporines and metronidazole.
Intensity, temperature and frequency-dependent photoabsorption spectroscopy are used to probe trap states in CdSo.44Seo.56 nanoparticles in glass. The photoabsorption signal from 6.2 nm radius particles is found to be a combination of two effects: bleaching, due to phase space filling, and an electric-field effect. Frequency-dependent photoabsorption data show that the electric-field effect is caused by a long-lived (r=30 /µs at T=293 K) trap state and that the bleaching occurs on a faster time scale. The trap activation energy obtained from the temperature dependence of the lifetime is 0.23 ±0.06 eV. Only bleaching is observed in the smaller nanocrystallites.
Rough-surface polycrystalline silicon films have been used for fabrication of electrically erasable-programmable read-only-memories (EEPROM). Silicon-Rich Oxides (SRO), also known as semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon (SIPOS), have been recommended for use as electron injectors. The advantage of SRO as injectors is that both the bottom and top surfaces of the film can be used to obtain high field enhancement. An ultra-thin multi-layer structure of silicon and silicon dioxide has been fabricated by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). High resolution TEM shows alternating layers of 50 A thick SiO2 and polycrystalline Si (grain size ∼ 80 A) films were deposited and MOS capacitors using this multilayer dielectric were studied to understand their electrical characteristics. Both I-V and C-V measurements show that the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling current is proportional to the number of polycrystalline layers. The “turn-on” voltage of the tunneling current is determined by the thickness of first SiO2 layer, and the effective dielectric constant varies from 3.9 to 9.1, proportional to the number of poly-Si layers within the multi-layer structure (MLS). For a 350 Å stack (7 layers), the interface trap density, Dit, was 3×1010 traps/cm2, and the effective dielectric constant was roughly 9.
Titanium oxide glasses exhibit a significant nonlinear optical response which is attributed to the large polarizability of the Ti ion. Ion implantation is a unique method for incorporating polarizable ions in glass hosts and allows for tailoring the nonlinear optical properties of the material for potential device applications in all optical switching and planar waveguide technology. However, at the molecular level, the linear and nonlinear properties of ion implanted glasses are governed by interactions between the glass host and the implanted ion, radiation damage, and ion-glass chemistry. In order to probe the host-guest interactions, we have measured the infrared and optical spectra for Ti implanted in silica, borosilicate, and aluminosilicate glasses. The infrared and optical spectra indicate that the host-guest interactions and defect concentration differ significantly for the three glasses investigated.
New trends in X-ray crystallography are concerned with the study of transient conditions of atomic structures, which take place after an energy activation agent is introduced. These time-resolved experiments require a fast mechanical shutter to interrupt the X-ray beam in a pump–probe cycle, with the aim to generate a stroboscopic effect. Thus, only diffraction data that are representative of the activated structure are actually collected. A rotating type of shutter, also known as chopper, is presented with the purpose to enable time-resolved experiments to be performed at I19 small-molecule single-crystal diffraction beamline. Exceptional stability in the rotational speed is critical to achieve the desired stroboscopic effect with minimum jitter. This requirement can be addressed only through design by the specification of suitable components and implementation of high-precision methods in manufacturing. The proposed equipment is comprised of a spindle supported on air bearings coupled to a slotted disc rotating inside a vacuum enclosure and driven by a brushless servo motor. Advanced control features are proposed to ensure that speed stability is achieved. Preliminary tests produced very encouraging results, giving strong indication that the chopper satisfies the specifications required for time-resolved experiments.
Ellis – van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder manifest by short-limb dwarfism, thoracic dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and teeth, and an approximately 60% incidence of congenital malformations of the heart. Despite patients with Ellis – van Creveld syndrome being regarded as having a high surgical risk, few data are available regarding their outcomes following surgery for congenital malformations of the heart in the current era.
Materials and methods
In this retrospective report, we summarise the clinical observations and outcomes of nine infants with Ellis – van Creveld syndrome who underwent surgery for congenital malformations of the heart between 2004 and 2009.
We identified 15 patients with Ellis – van Creveld syndrome during the study period; 11 (73%) had haemodynamically significant congenital malformations of the heart warranting surgery. In two of these patients, surgery was not performed. Of the nine patients who underwent surgery, all of whom were infants, eight (89%) had various forms of an atrioventricular septal defect and one patient (11%) had hypoplastic left heart syndrome (mitral and aortic atresia). Among the nine patients who underwent surgery, four (44%) died at a median of 102 days with a range of 25–149 days post-operatively, mostly from respiratory failure. Respiratory morbidity was seen in all surviving patients, of whom three underwent tracheostomy.
Surgery for congenital malformations of the heart can be successful in infants with Ellis – van Creveld syndrome, but mortality is high and post-operative respiratory morbidity should be expected.