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The current study aims to describe the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence across the US regions, and explore the predictive factors of MD adherence among US adults.
Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. MD adherence score (0–9) was calculated using the Block 98 FFQ. Hot spot analysis was conducted to describe the geospatial distribution of MD adherence across the US regions. Logistic regression explored predictors of MD adherence.
Nationwide community-dwelling residency in the USA.
Adults aged ≥45 years (n 20 897) who participated in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study and completed baseline assessment during January 2003 and October 2007.
The mean of MD adherence score was 4·36 (sd 1·70), and 46·5 % of the sample had high MD adherence (score 5–9). Higher MD adherence clusters were primarily located in the western and northeastern coastal areas of the USA, whereas lower MD adherence clusters were majorly observed in south and east-north-central regions. Being older, black, not a current smoker, having a college degree or above, an annual household income ≥ $US 75K, exercising ≥4 times/week and watching TV/video <4 h/d were each associated with higher odds of high MD adherence.
There were significant geospatial and population disparities in MD adherence across the US regions. Future studies are needed to explore the causes of MD adherence disparities and develop effective interventions for MD promotion in the USA.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems have developed protocols for prehospital activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory for patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to decrease first-medical-contact-to-balloon time (FMC2B). The rate of “false positive” prehospital activations is high. In order to decrease this rate and expedite care for patients with true STEMI, the American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) developed the Mission Lifeline PreAct STEMI algorithm, which was implemented in Los Angeles County (LAC; California USA) in 2015. The hypothesis of this study was that implementation of the PreAct algorithm would increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of prehospital activation.
This is an observational pre-/post-study of the effect of the implementation of the PreAct algorithm for patients with suspected STEMI transported to one of five STEMI Receiving Centers (SRCs) within the LAC Regional System. The primary outcome was the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The secondary outcome was FMC2B.
A total of 1,877 patients were analyzed for the primary outcome in the pre-intervention period and 405 patients in the post-intervention period. There was an overall decrease in cardiac catheterization laboratory activations, from 67% in the pre-intervention period to 49% in the post-intervention period (95% CI for the difference, -14% to -22%). The overall rate of cardiac catheterization declined in post-intervention period as compared the pre-intervention period, from 34% to 30% (95% CI, for the difference -7.6% to 0.4%), but actually increased for subjects who had activation (48% versus 58%; 95% CI, 4.6%-15.0%). Implementation of the PreAct algorithm was associated with an increase in the PPV of activation for PCI or CABG from 37.9% to 48.6%. The overall odds ratio (OR) associated with the intervention was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). The effect of the intervention was to decrease variability between medical centers. There was no associated change in average FMC2B.
The implementation of the PreAct algorithm in the LAC EMS system was associated with an overall increase in the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation.
We present a sediment-mixing process model of till genesis based on data from surface tills of the Saginaw lobe terrain in lower Michigan. Our research uses a spatial approach to understanding glacial landsystems and till genesis. We sampled calcareous till at 336 upland sites and at 17 sites in lacustrine sediment of the Saginaw Lake plain. The loamy tills have bimodal grain-size curves, with a fine-texture mode near the silt–clay boundary and a sand mode. Spatial grouping analysis suggests that tills can be divided into six groups, each with different textures and clay mineral compositions that vary systematically down-ice. The similarity among groups with respect to the silt–clay mode and clay mineralogy argues for a common origin for the fines—illite-rich lacustrine sediment of the Saginaw Lake plain. Fine-textured sediments were probably entrained, transported, and deposited down-ice as till, which also becomes sandier and enriched in kaolinite, reflecting increasing mixing with shallow sandstone bedrock with distance from the lacustrine clay source. Clayey tills on the flanks of the Saginaw terrain may reflect proglacial ponding against nearby uplands. A process model of progressive down-ice mixing of preexisting fine lake sediments with crushed/abraded sandstone bedrock helps to better explain till textures compared with a purely crushing/abrasion process model.
We present the current status of a scalable computing framework to address the need of the multidisciplinary effort to study chemical dynamics. Specifically, we are enabling scientists to process and store experimental data, run large-scale computationally expensive high-fidelity physical simulations, and analyze these results using state-of-the-art data analytics, machine learning, and uncertainty quantification methods using heterogeneous computing resources. We present the results of this framework on a single metadata-driven workflow to accelerate an additive manufacturing use-case.
Stratigraphic records extending to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (57,000–29,000 cal yr BP) or older in Beringia are extremely rare. Three stratigraphic sections in interior western Alaska show near continuous sedimentological and environmental progressions extending from at least MIS 3, if not older, through MIS 1 (14,000 cal yr BP–present). The Kolmakof, Sue Creek, and VABM (vertical angle bench mark) Kuskokwim sections along the central Kuskokwim River, once a highland landscape at the fringe of central and eastern Beringia, contain aeolian deposition and soil sequences dating beyond 50,000 14C yr BP. Thick peaty soil, shallow lacustrine, and tephra deposits represent the MIS 3 interstade (or older). Sand sheet and loess deposits, wedge cast development, and very thin soil development mark the later MIS 3 period and the transition into the MIS 2 stade (29,000–14,000 cal yr BP). Loess accumulation with thicker soil development occurred between ~16,000–13,500 cal yr BP at the MIS 2 and MIS 1 transition. After ~13,500 cal yr BP, loess accumulation waned and peat development increased throughout MIS 1. These stratigraphic sequences represent transitions between a warm and moist period during MIS 3, to a cooler and more arid period during MIS 2, then a return to warmer and moister climates in MIS 1.
The major facilitator superfamily domain 2a protein was identified recently as a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) symporter with high affinity for LPC species enriched with DHA (LPC-DHA). To test the hypothesis that reproductive state and choline intake influence plasma LPC-DHA, we performed a post hoc analysis of samples available through 10 weeks of a previously conducted feeding study, which provided two doses of choline (480 and 930 mg/d) to non-pregnant (n 21), third-trimester pregnant (n 26), and lactating (n 24) women; all participants consumed 200 mg of supplemental DHA and 22 % of their daily choline intake as 2H-labelled choline. The effects of reproductive state and choline intake on total LPC-DHA (expressed as a percentage of LPC) and plasma enrichments of labelled LPC and LPC-DHA were assessed using mixed and generalised linear models. Reproductive state interacted with time (P = 0·001) to influence total LPC-DHA, which significantly increased by week 10 in non-pregnant women, but not in pregnant or lactating women. Contrary to total LPC-DHA, patterns of labelled LPC-DHA enrichments were discordant between pregnant and lactating women (P < 0·05), suggestive of unique, reproductive state-specific mechanisms that result in reduced production and/or enhanced clearance of LPC-DHA during pregnancy and lactation. Regardless of the reproductive state, women consuming 930 v. 480 mg choline per d exhibited no change in total LPC-DHA but higher d3-LPC-DHA (P = 0·02), indicating that higher choline intakes favour the production of LPC-DHA from the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Our results warrant further investigation into the effect of reproductive state and dietary choline on LPC-DHA dynamics and its contribution to DHA status.
The South China Sea (SCS) is a biodiversity hotspot, however, most biodiversity surveys in the region are confined to shallow water reefs. Here, we studied the benthic habitat and fish assemblages in the upper mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; 30–40 m) and SWRs (8–22 m) at three geographic locations (Luzon Strait; Palawan; and the Kalayaan Group of Islands) in the eastern SCS (also called the West Philippine Sea) using diver-based survey methods. Mean coral genera and fish species richness ranged from 17–25 (per 25 m2) and 11–17 (per 250 m2) in MCEs, respectively; although none of these were novel genera/species. Coral and fish assemblages were structured more strongly by location than by depth. Location differences were associated with the variability in benthic composition, wherein locations with higher hard coral cover had higher coral genera richness and abundance. Locations with higher algae and sand cover had higher diversity and density of fish herbivores and benthic invertivores. Fishing efforts may also have contributed to among-location differences as the highly exploited location had the lowest fish biomass. The low variation between depths may be attributed to the similar benthic composition at each location, the interconnectivity between depths due to hydrological conditions, fish motility, and the common fishing gears used in the Philippines that can likely extend beyond SWRs. Results imply that local-scale factors and anthropogenic disturbances probably dampen across-depth structuring in coral genera and fish species assemblages.
In 2010, South Africa (SA) hosted the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup (soccer). Emergency Medical Services (EMS) used the SA mass gathering medicine (MGM) resource model to predict resource allocation. This study analyzed data from the World Cup and compared them with the resource allocation predicted by the SA mass gathering model.
Prospectively, data were collected from patient contacts at 9 venues across the Western Cape province of South Africa. Required resources were based on the number of patients seeking basic life support (BLS), intermediate life support (ILS), and advanced life support (ALS). Overall patient presentation rates (PPRs) and transport to hospital rates (TTHRs) were also calculated.
BLS services were required for 78.4% (n = 1279) of patients and were consistently overestimated using the SA mass gathering model. ILS services were required for 14.0% (n = 228), and ALS services were required for 3.1% (n = 51) of patients. Both ILS and ALS services, and TTHR were underestimated at smaller venues.
The MGM predictive model overestimated BLS requirements and inconsistently predicted ILS and ALS requirements. MGM resource models, which are heavily based on predicted attendance levels, have inherent limitations, which may be improved by using research-based outcomes.
We present a continuous, sediment core-based record of paleohydroclimate spanning ~5800 cal yr BP to recent from Lower Pahranagat Lake (LPAH), a shallow, alkaline lake in southern Nevada. We apply stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) from fine-fraction authigenic carbonate, which are sensitive recorders of hydroclimatic variability in this highly evaporative region. Additional geochemical proxies (total organic carbon, C/N, and total inorganic carbon) provide supporting information on paleoecological change in and around the lake. Our data suggest progressively wetter conditions starting at the later part of the middle Holocene and extending into the late Holocene (~5500–3350 cal yr BP) followed by a millennial-scale dry period from ~3150 to 1700 cal yr BP. This latter interval encompasses the ‘Late Holocene dry period’ (LHDP) reported by other investigators, and our data help refine the area affected in this episode. Our data also show evidence for a series of century-scale fluctuations in regional hydroclimate, including wet and dry intervals between 2350 and 1600 cal yr BP, and drier conditions over the past few centuries. Paleohydroclimate trends in the LPAH record show correspondence with those from the central Great Basin to the north, suggesting that both areas were subject to similar climatic forcings.
Dorothea's faith supplied all that Mr Casaubon's words seemed to leave unsaid: what believer sees a disturbing omission or infelicity? The text, whether of prophet or poet, expands for whatever we can put into it, and even bad grammar is sublime.
George Eliot, Middlemarch
Readers of Milton have always understood the depth and breadth of his intellect. In the range of his references and in the penetrating discernment with which Milton deploys his vast learning, his works characteristically exhibit not only learnedness, but also knowingness. Even dyspeptic critics as given to harshness as Samuel Johnson must finally concede that Paradise Lost offers “a full display of the united force of study and genius; of a great accumulation of materials, with judgement to digest and fancy to combine them: Milton was able to select from nature or from story, from ancient fable or from modern science, whatever could illustrate or adorn his thoughts.” In the memorable praise of William Hazlitt, “The quantity of art in him shews the strength of his genius: the weight of his intellectual obligations would have oppressed any other writer. Milton's learning has the effect of intuition.” His poetry and prose exude a scholarly disposition that both admirers and critics have come to recognize as a signature of his authorship.
As soon as one tries to describe the basis for the enormous confidence and authority of this scholarly persona, however, the air begins to leave the room. A portrait leaps to mind of an anemic pedant, perhaps of the sort exemplified by George Eliot's Edward Casaubon—vainly, tragically, and ironically compiling his doomed attempt at grand synthesis, The Key to All Mythologies. And yet, as our epigraph suggests, the unquestioned faith of the true believer can also mislead one to believe in a text's infinite elasticity, “expanding for whatever we can put into it,” so that “even bad grammar is sublime.” Uncritical admiration of an author, insufficiently tempered with knowledge of historical and theoretical contexts, can wed any of us to a scholarly position as precarious as that of Dorothea Brooke, the intelligent but naive heroine of Eliot’s masterpiece.
Following the editors' introduction to the collection, the essays in Scholarly Milton examine the nature of Milton's own formidable scholarship and its implications for his prose and poetry–"scholarly Milton" the writer–as well as subsequent scholars' historical and theoretical framing of Milton studies as an object of scholarly attention–"scholarly Milton" as at first an emergent and later an established academic discipline. The essays are particularly concerned with the topics of the ethical ends of learning, of Milton's attention to the trivium within the Renaissance humanist educational system, and the development of scholarly commentary on Milton's writings. Originally selected from the best essays presented at the 2015 Conference on John Milton in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, the essays have been considerably revised and expanded for publication.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To study the biology of Phosholamban (PLN) in a human relevant model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: State of the art stem-cell technologies using iPSC-CMs derived from carriers of a lethal PLN mutation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary data demonstrate that this particular PLN mutation (L39) results in reduced expression and mis-localization of PLN as well as increased incidence of early after depolarization in isolated iPSC-CMs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Phospholamban (PLN) is a critical regulator of Ca++ homeostasis yet many uncertainties still remain regarding its role in humans. Our study will provide unique insights into the pathophysiology of this protein in HF.