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The use of peritoneal catheters for prophylactic dialysis or drainage to prevent fluid overload after neonatal cardiac surgery is common in some centres; however, the multi-centre variability and details of peritoneal catheter use are not well described.
Twenty-two-centre NEonatal and Pediatric Heart Renal Outcomes Network (NEPHRON) study to describe multi-centre peritoneal catheter use after STAT category 3–5 neonatal cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Patient characteristics and acute kidney injury/fluid outcomes for six post-operative days are described among three cohorts: peritoneal catheter with dialysis, peritoneal catheter with passive drainage, and no peritoneal catheter.
Of 1490 neonates, 471 (32%) had an intraoperative peritoneal catheter placed; 177 (12%) received prophylactic dialysis and 294 (20%) received passive drainage. Sixteen (73%) centres used peritoneal catheter at some frequency, including six centres in >50% of neonates. Four centres utilised prophylactic peritoneal dialysis. Time to post-operative dialysis initiation was 3 hours [1, 5] with the duration of 56 hours [37, 90]; passive drainage cohort drained for 92 hours [64, 163]. Peritoneal catheter were more common among patients receiving pre-operative mechanical ventilation, single ventricle physiology, and higher complexity surgery. There was no association with adverse events. Serum creatinine and daily fluid balance were not clinically different on any post-operative day. Mortality was similar.
In neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery, peritoneal catheter use is not rare, with substantial variability among centres. Peritoneal catheters are used more commonly with higher surgical complexity. Adverse event rates, including mortality, are not different with peritoneal catheter use. Fluid overload and creatinine-based acute kidney injury rates are not different in peritoneal catheter cohorts.
Death anxiety (DA), a condition characterized by fear, angst, or panic related to the awareness of one’s own death, is commonly observed in advanced cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS-IT) in a sample of patients with advanced cancer.
The sample included 200 Italian advanced cancer patients meeting eligibility criteria to access palliative care. Patients’ levels of DA were assessed by using the DADDS-IT, while the levels of depression, anxiety, demoralization, spiritual well-being, and symptom burden were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Demoralization Scale, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, respectively; Karnofsky Performance Status was used to measure functional impairment. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of previous structures and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted.
CFA revealed that none of the previous structures adequately fitted data from our sample. EFA revealed a 4-factor model comprising Finitude (α = 0.91), Regret (α = 0.86), Dying (α = 0.88), and Relational Burden (α = 0.73), accounting for the 77.1% of the variance. Dying subscore was higher in hospice patients than in those recruited in medical wards.
Significance of results
The present study provides further evidence that DA is a condition that deserves attention and that DADDS-IT shows good psychometric properties to support its use in research and clinical settings.
We describe an adolescent with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and symptomatic high-grade, second-degree atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker placement. It is difficult to ascertain if these two diagnoses were independent or had a causal relationship though ongoing symptoms were not present prior to the infection. Because of this uncertainty, awareness that rhythm disturbances can be cardiac in origin but also secondary to other aetiologies, such as infection, is warranted.
Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.
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