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We present an account of why we decided to retract a paper. We discovered a lack of adherence to conventional trials registration, execution, interpretation and reporting, and consequently, with the authors, needed to correct the scientific record. We set out our responses in general to strengthen research integrity.
Declaration of interest
K.S.B. is Editor-in-Chief of the British Journal of Psychiatry. W.L., K.R.K. and S.M.L. are members of the senior editorial committee and the research integrity committee for the journal. In the past three years, S.M.L. has received research support from Janssen and Lundbeck, and personal support from Janssen, Otsuka and Sunovion.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling acts as one of modulators that control neural crest cell (NCC) migration, but how this is achieved is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of FGF signalling on NCC migration by blocking this process. Constructs that were capable of inducing Sprouty2 (Spry2) or dominant-negative FGFR1 (Dn-FGFR1) expression were transfected into the cells making up the neural tubes. Our results revealed that blocking FGF signalling at stage HH10 (neurulation stage) could enhance NCC migration at both the cranial and trunk levels in the developing embryos. It was established that FGF-mediated NCC migration was not due to altering the expression of N-cadherin in the neural tube. Instead, we determined that cyclin D1 was overexpressed in the cranial and trunk levels when Sprouty2 was upregulated in the dorsal neural tube. These results imply that the cell cycle was a target of FGF signalling through which it regulates NCC migration at the neurulation stage.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Reducing radiologic exams has been a focus of cost reduction in healthcare systems. The utility and justification of obtaining cross-sectional imaging (PPCSI) before surgical intervention continues to be evaluated. For peripheral artery disease (PAD) consensus guidelines regarding PPCSI do not exist and may be influenced by patient complexity, variation of disease presentation, and physician preference. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of PPCSI before percutaneous PAD intervention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients receiving first-time endovascular revascularization procedure for PAD from 2013 to 2015 were evaluated for PPCSI done within 180 days prior to revascularization. Patient and physician demographics, perioperative characteristics, and disease distribution/severity were evaluated. The primary outcome was technical success defined as improving inflow and/or revascularization of the target outflow vessels to <50% stenosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 348 patients who underwent an attempted revascularization procedure 159 (45.7%) patients underwent PPCSI, including 151 CTA and 8 MRA. Of these, 48% were ordered by the referring provider (84% at an outside institution), and 52% were ordered by the treating physician. PPCSI was performed a median of 26 days (IQR 9-53) prior to procedure. Individual vascular surgeon practice identified PPCSI rates ranging from 31% to 70%. On multivariate analysis chronic kidney disease (OR=0.35; CI 0.17–0.73) had the strongest effect against of PPCSI, and Inpatient/ED evaluation (OR=3.20; CI 1.58–6.50), aorto-iliac (OR=2.78; CI 1.46–5.29) and femoral-popliteal occlusions (OR=2.51; CI 1.38–4.55) most strongly predicted PPCSI. After excluding 31 diagnostic procedures, technical success did not differ between endovascular procedures with PPSCI (91.3%) or without PPCSI (85.6%), p=0.11. When analyzing 89 femoral-popliteal occlusions, technical success was higher with PPCSI (88%) compared to procedures without PPSCI (69%), p=0.026. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: PPCSI use is influenced by inpatient status, chronic kidney disease, and anatomic consideration. PPCSI was not associated with overall technical success although it appeared beneficial for femoral-popliteal occlusions. Routine practices of ordering of PPCSI may not be warranted when considering technical success but may be important in treatment planning. Further studies are warranted to determine if radiation, cost, and contrast load justify PPCSI.
Introduction: Over 2.6 million Hispanic/Latino construction workers (CWs) live in the US; 91% of South Florida CWs are Hispanic/Latino. CWs have higher smoking and lower cessation rates than other workers. Limited access to cessation services, worksite turnover, and lack of interventions tailored to culture/occupation hinder cessation. Partnering with worksite food trucks to deliver unique cessation interventions may improve these efforts.
Aims: To explore a novel cessation approach, assess worker/worksite acceptability, and seek input into intervention development.
Methods: In 2016, we conducted five semi-structured focus groups with 37 smoking Hispanic/Latino CWs. Constant comparative analysis was used to examine a priori themes regarding smoking behaviours, cessation treatments, intervention delivery, cultural adaptation, and quit interest.
Results: CWs reported tremendous job stress. Most smoking occurred during the workday and most CWs did not use nicotine replacement therapy with past quit attempts. Most CWs were open to a worksite face-to-face group cessation intervention before work (many underutilize breaks and feel pressure to keep working). CWs felt it unnecessary to tailor the intervention to Hispanics/Latinos indicating smokers are the same regardless of race/ethnicity.
Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the need to consider work environments, job demands/stress, and worker preferences when developing accessible and acceptable cessation interventions.
Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.
To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.
We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.
Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.
Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders.
The Twin Study of Negative Valence Emotional Constructs is a multi-site study designed to examine the relationship between a broad selection of potential measures designed to assess putative endophenotypes for negative valence systems (NVS) and early symptoms of internalizing disorders (IDs). In this article, we describe the sample characteristics, data collection protocols, and measures used. Pre-adolescent Caucasian twin pairs were recruited through the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry; data collection began in February of 2013. Enrolled twins completed various dimensional self-report measures along with cognitive, emotional, and psychophysiological tasks designed to assess NVS function. Parents also completed surveys about their twins and themselves. In addition, a subset of the twins also participated in a neuroimaging protocols. Data collection is in the final stages, and preliminary analyses are underway. The findings will potentially expand our understanding of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in NVS phenotypes and provide new insights into underlying risk factors for IDs.
Metamorphic epitaxy offers the possibility of growing devices on wafers composed of different materials that might be larger than the native bulk substrates for a potential cost-reduction of III–V components; this is especially important when native substrates with desired lattice constants are not available. This article reviews the concepts of metamorphic epitaxy of III–V compound semiconductor materials and examines how they have been applied to the development of advanced transistor devices. These metamorphic devices are expected to be a key enabler of future heterogeneous integrated circuits in which Si and III–V devices are monolithically integrated on a wafer scale using complementary metal oxide semiconductor-like process flows.
This study investigates the use of shape memory polymers (SMPs) as a substrate
for a self-coiling cochlear implant electrode array and investigates the
self-coiling ability of a sham probe micromachined atop such a substrate.
Through the use of a self-coiling cochlear implant, the capability to avoid
contact with the tissue of the cochlear duct is investigated via the insertion
of a dummy device into a model cochlea heated to an ambient 34 °C.
Finally, a prototype straightening and insertion tool is developed for automated
retraction and locking of the coiled shape into a bar geometry. Preliminary
demonstration of the deployment of self-coiling cochlear implants is shown and
paves the way for future studies focused on using histological analysis of the
cochlear wall tissue to compare the degree of trauma resulting from linear
cochlear implant arrays versus the self-coiling, non-contact probes demonstrated
Policymakers may wish to align healthcare payment and quality of care while minimizing unintended consequences, particularly for safety net hospitals.
To determine whether the 2008 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital-Acquired Conditions policy had a differential impact on targeted healthcare-associated infection rates in safety net compared with non–safety net hospitals.
Interrupted time-series design.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Nonfederal acute care hospitals that reported central line–associated bloodstream infection and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health Safety Network from July 1, 2007, through December 31, 2013.
We did not observe changes in the slope of targeted infection rates in the postpolicy period compared with the prepolicy period for either safety net (postpolicy vs prepolicy ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.84–1.09]) or non–safety net (0.99 [0.90–1.10]) hospitals. Controlling for prepolicy secular trends, we did not detect differences in an immediate change at the time of the policy between safety net and non–safety net hospitals (P for 2-way interaction, .87).
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital-Acquired Conditions policy did not have an impact, either positive or negative, on already declining rates of central line–associated bloodstream infection in safety net or non–safety net hospitals. Continued evaluations of the broad impact of payment policies on safety net hospitals will remain important as the use of financial incentives and penalties continues to expand in the United States.
Thermoelectric phenomena strongly influence the behavior of chalcogenide materials in nanoelectronic devices including phase-change memory cells. This paper presents the annealing temperature and phase dependent thermoelectric properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 films including the thermoelectric power factor and the figure of merit. The Ge2Sb2Te5 films annealed at different temperatures contain varying fractions of the amorphous and crystalline phases which strongly influence the thermoelectric properties. The thermoelectric power factor increases fom 3.2 μW/mK2 to 65 μW/mK2as the crystal phase changes from face-centered cubic to hexagonal close-packed. The data are consistent with modeling based on effective medium theory and suggest that careful consideration of phase purity is needed to improve the figures of merit for phase change memories and potentially for thermoelectric energy conversion applications.
This study examined the interplay between the influence of peers who promote alcohol use and μ-opioid receptor M1 (OPRM1) genetic variation in the intergenerational transmission of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms while separating the “traitlike” components of AUD symptoms from their age-specific manifestations at three ages from emerging adulthood (17–23 years) to adulthood (29–40 years). The results for males were consistent with genetically influenced peer selection mechanisms as mediators of parent alcoholism effects. Male children of alcoholics were less likely to be carriers of the G allele in single nucleotide polymorphism A118G (rs1799971), and those who were homozygous for the A allele were more likely to affiliate with alcohol use promoting peers who increased the risk for AUD symptoms at all ages. There was evidence for women of an interaction between OPRM1 variation and peer affiliations but only at the earliest age band. Peer influences had stronger effects among women who were G-carriers. These results illustrate the complex ways in which the interplay between influences at multiple levels of analysis can underlie the intergenerational transmission of alcohol disorders as well as the importance of considering age and gender differences in these pathways.