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The dynamic interplay between surface and subsurface flow in the presence of a permeable boundary was investigated using low and high frame-rate particle-image velocimetry measurements in a refractive-index-matching flow environment. Two idealized permeable wall models were considered. Both models contained five layers of cubically packed spheres, but one exhibited a smooth interface with the flow, while the other embodied a hemispherical surface topography. The relationship between the large-scale turbulent motions overlying the permeable walls and the small-scale turbulence just above, and within, the walls was explored using instantaneous and statistical analyses. Although previous studies have indirectly identified the potential existence of amplitude modulation in permeable-wall turbulence (a phenomenon identified in impermeable-wall turbulence whereby the outer large scales modulate the intensity of the near-wall, small-scale turbulence), the present effort provides direct evidence of its existence in flow over both permeable walls considered. The spatio-temporal signatures of amplitude modulation were also characterized using conditional averaging based on zero-crossing events. This analysis highlights the connection between large-scale regions of high/low streamwise momentum in the surface flow, downwelling/upwelling across the permeable interface and enhancement/suppression of small-scale turbulence, respectively, just above and within the permeable walls. The presence of bed roughness is found to intensify the strength and penetration of flow into the permeable bed modulated by large-scale structures in the surface flow, and linked to possible roughness-formed channelling effects and shedding of smaller-scale flow structures from the roughness elements.
SDG 15 requires the maintenance of life on land and endorses priorities already established through international conventions and agreements. The scale, and complexity, of tropical forest loss and biodiversity decline versus the limited resources for conservation and forestry pose many challenges. The main innovation of SDG 15 is that decision makers will see this goal as one to integrate with other SDGs; the risk is that short-term priorities and a ‘business as usual’ approach will undermine this. We examine these opportunities and challenges, the factors that impinge upon them and how they may play out over the next decade. There will be trade-offs between SDG 15 and other SDGs resulting from competition for land, but there are also synergies and opportunities that require recognition. We encourage conservation and development professionals to engage with those responsible for all the Agenda 2030 targets to ensure that SDG 15 is a priority in all SDG related processes.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
We sought to explore factors associated with depressive symptom severity among older persons (≥60 years of age) and to compare the depressive symptoms commonly experienced by older elderly (≥75 years) with those commonly experienced by younger elderly (<75 years).
Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a nationally representative survey.
Four parishes in Jamaica.
A total of 2,943 older community dwellers participated.
The survey included the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and items on age, sex, and educational level. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between ZSDS score and: age, sex, MMSE score, and educational level. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine, for each ZSDS item, whether particular responses were more associated with older or younger elderly.
Higher ZSDS scores were associated with increasing age (B = 0.13, p < 0.001), lower MMSE score (B = −0.42, p < 0.001), the female sex (B = 3.52, p < 0.001), and lower educational level (B = −1.27, p < 0.001). The ZSDS items that were endorsed significantly more (p < 0.05) by older elderly related to negative evaluations about their functionality and value. Hopelessness was also more prominent among the older elderly. The items that were endorsed significantly more (p < 0.05) by the younger elderly had less of a focus.
Among older persons, increasing age was associated with marginally higher levels of depressive symptoms. Female gender, cognitive deficits, preoccupations about value and functionality, and feelings of hopelessness may serve as useful screening parameters.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder in the US, with a lifetime prevalence of 2.8%. Disturbances in reward circuitry have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Dasotraline is a novel and potent dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with slow absorption and a long half-life resulting in stable plasma concentrations over 24 hours with once-daily dosing. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of flexibly-dosed dasotraline (4, 6, and 8 mg/day) vs placebo in adults with moderate to severe BED over a 12-week period (NCT02564588).
Key inclusion criteria included moderate to severe BED based on a history of ≥2 binge eating days/week for ≥6 months prior to screening, and ≥3 binge eating days for each of2 weeks prior to randomization, as documented in participant’s binge eating diary. Patients were randomized 1:1 to flexibly-dosed dasotraline (4, 6, 8 mg/day) or placebo. Theprimary endpoint was change from baseline (CFB) in the number of binge eating days per week at Week 12. Key secondary endpoints were: CFB in Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) Scale at Week 12; CFB in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge Eating (YBOCS-BE) at Week 12; and the percentage ofsubjects with a 4-week cessation from binge eating prior to Week 12 or end of treatment (EOT). Except for 4-week cessation, the other three variables were analyzed using amixed model for repeated measures (MMRM).
317 subjects (84% female) received ≥1 dose of study medication (mean age was 38.2 years; mean number of binge eating days per week, 4.25; mean CGI-S score, 4.5; mean BMI, 34.7). The MMRM analysis of CFB at Week 12 in the number of binge days/week yielded a significant mean difference of –0.99 (95% CI: –0.65 to –1.33; p<0.001) infavour of dasotraline (–3.74 in the dasotraline group vs –2.75 in the placebo group). All three key secondary endpoints were met at Week 12 or EOT: 46.5% of subjects in thedasotraline group achieved at least 4 consecutive weeks’ cessation from binge eating vs 20.6% in the placebo group (p<0.001); CFB in CGI-S and YBOCS-BE scores were also statistically significant in favour of dasotraline (p<0.001). The treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) that occurred more frequently with dasotraline vs placebo at >2% incidence included: insomnia (44.6% vs 8.1%), dry mouth (27.4% vs 5.0%), decreased appetite (19.7% vs 6.9%), anxiety (17.8% vs 2.5%), nausea (12.7% vs 6.9%) and decreased body weight (12.1% vs 0%). Discontinuation due to AEs occurred in 11.5% of patients taking dasotraline vs 2.5% taking placebo.
In adults with moderate to severe BED, there were highly significant and clinically meaningful reductions with dasotraline vs placebo in the frequency of binge eating, global severity of illness, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms related to binge eating. These results suggest dasotraline may offer a novel, well-tolerated and efficacious treatmentfor BED.
Motivated by the prospect of the wealth of data arising from the inauguration of the era of gravitational wave detection by ground-based interferometers the DES collaboration, in partnership with members of the LIGO collaboration and members of the astronomical community at large, have established a research program to search for their optical counterparts and to explore their use as cosmological probes. In this talk we present the status of our program and discuss prospects for establishing this new probe as part of the portfolio of the Dark Energy research program in the future, in particular for the next generation survey, LSST.
Operation Canine Lifeline was a tabletop exercise developed by students and faculty of Boston University School of Medicine’s Healthcare Emergency Management master’s program. The tabletop exercise led to discussion on current protocols for canines working in the field, what occurs if a canine encounters a toxin in the field, and what to do in situations of national security that require working with civilian agencies. This discussion led to the creation of a set of recommendations around providing prehospital veterinary care to government working dogs. The recommendations include a government-run veterinary toxicology hotline for the sole use of the government, issuing handlers deployment kits and preprogrammed smartphones that contain information on the care practices for dogs, and an increased effort for civilian integration, through local emergency medical services, in the emergency care of government canines. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:15–20)
We aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use among older Jamaicans as well as to explore among this population the relationships between alcohol use and: age, sex, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Although the nature of these relationships among the proposed study population were uncertain, in other settings alcohol use has tended to decline with increasing age, occur more commonly among men than women, and show non-linear relationships with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction.
Data gathered by two-stage cluster sampling for a nationally representative health and lifestyle survey of 2,943 community-dwelling older Jamaicans, aged 60 to 103 years, were subjected to secondary analysis using the Student's t-test and χ2 test as appropriate.
Current alcohol use was reported by 21.4% of the participants. It steadily declined with age and was six times more prevalent among men (37.6%) than women (6.2%). These findings were statistically significant as were associations of current alcohol use with comparatively lower levels of depressive symptoms. Current alcohol use was also more prevalent among persons who were either highly satisfied or highly dissatisfied with their lives, compared to others who had levels of life satisfaction between these two extremes.
Current alcohol use among older Jamaicans occurs primarily among men, declines with increasing age, and is associated with a relatively low likelihood of depression. It is also associated with very high and very low levels of life satisfaction.
This paper analyzes in detail the role of environmental and economic shocks in the migration of the 1930s. The 1940 US Census of Population asked every inhabitant where they lived five years earlier, a unique source for understanding migration flows and networks. Earlier research documented migrant origins and destinations, but we will show how short-term and annual weather conditions at sending locations in the 1930s explain those flows, and how they operated through agricultural success. Beyond demographic data, we use data about temperature and precipitation, plus data about agricultural production from the agricultural census. The widely known migration literature for the 1930s describes an era of relatively low migration, with much of the migration that did occur radiating outward from the Dust Bowl region and the cotton South. Our work about the complete United States will provide a fuller examination of migration in this socially and economically important era.
James Lomax, Associate Chairman, Director of Educational Programs, Karl Menninger Chair of Psychiatric Education,
Kenneth I. Pargament, Clinical Psychologist and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology at Bowling Green State University, Ohio
Historically, religion and spirituality have not been treated particularly kindly by mental health practitioners and theorists, being described as passive and defensive in character and oriented towards denying rather than confronting the realities of life (Pargament & Park, 1995). Albert Ellis, the founder of rational emotive therapy, had this to say: ‘the conclusion seems inescapable that religiosity is, on almost every conceivable count, opposed to the normal goals of mental health’ (1986: p. 42). In the past 25 years this critical view has given way to a more balanced perspective. Ellis himself recanted his uniformly negative stance. The shift in view may be in part due to the emergence of a significant body of empirical research linking religion and spirituality to better health and well-being in many groups, including clinical populations (Koenig et al, 2012).
This chapter focuses on one significant domain of research and its implications for clinical practice: the cognitive and relational domains of spiritual coping. We begin with a brief review of theory and research in the area of spiritual coping, particularly as it applies to people dealing with mental health problems (for more comprehensive reviews see Cummings & Pargament, 2010; Pargament, 2011; Gall & Guirguis-Younger, 2013). We then present two narrative accounts of spiritual coping in clinical practice, which illustrate different patterns of spiritual coping and different directions in treatment. We conclude by considering ways to foster greater sensitivity among mental health professionals to the important place of spirituality in treatment.
Theory and research on spiritual coping
Prevalence of spiritual coping
The adage that there are no atheists in foxholes is not wholly correct. Even in an event as horrific as the Holocaust, some people reported themselves to be non-believers before, during and well after this trauma (Brenner, 1980). Yet, though it is not a universal rule, the spiritual impulse is often quickened during times of greatest stress. This holds true not only for the general population but also for people with serious psychiatric problems. In one study, 30% of patients described an increase in their religious faith following the development of a psychiatric illness (Kirov et al, 1998).
This paper discusses the current literature on impacts and adaptation costs at the sectoral level. The focus is primarily the US, but includes examples on international applications that highlight key differences or other relevant demonstrations of method and data use. The paper provides an overall framework that addresses the components of economic impacts, including definitions of impacts, adaptation costs, and residual damages. The paper then focuses on understanding the current breadth and depth of the literature that exists to characterize what we know about economic sectors studied in the recent literature (agriculture, coastal resources, water resources, infrastructure, health, crime, energy, labor productivity, and ecosystems), how the methodologies differ, what the gaps and challenges are, and offers a sense of the impacts at the US national level. A new generation of impact studies, including the U.S. EPA’s ongoing Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project; the new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 Working Group II report; the U.S. National Climate Assessment; and the Risky Business Project led by the Next Generation Foundation, provide the motivation for this review. These efforts, taken together, have advanced the state of US economic impact assessment work along two critical frontiers, both of which support benefit-cost analyses of climate change: assessment of the risk and economic consequences of extreme climatic events; and assessment of ecosystem effects. Yet, the latest work also highlights gaps in the lack of comprehensive sectoral coverage; more complete incorporation of adaptation opportunities in impact assessment; and critical cross- and multi-sectoral effects that remain poorly understood.