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Ensuring ready access to free drinking-water in schools is an important strategy for prevention of obesity and dental caries, and for improving student learning. Yet to date, there are no validated instruments to examine water access in schools. The present study aimed to develop and validate a survey of school administrators to examine school access to beverages, including water and sports drinks, and school and district-level water-related policies and practices.
Survey validity was measured by comparing results of telephone surveys of school administrators with on-site observations of beverage access and reviews of school policy documents for any references to beverages. The semi-structured telephone survey included items about free drinking-water access (sixty-four items), commonly available competitive beverages (twenty-nine items) and water-related policies and practices (twenty-eight items). Agreement between administrator surveys and observation/document review was calculated using kappa statistics for categorical variables, and Pearson correlation coefficients and t tests for continuous variables.
Public schools in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA.
School administrators (n 24).
Eighty-one per cent of questions related to school beverage access yielded κ values indicating substantial or almost perfect agreement (κ>0·60). However, only one of twenty-eight questions related to drinking-water practices and policies yielded a κ value representing substantial or almost perfect agreement.
This school administrator survey appears reasonably valid for questions related to beverage access, but less valid for questions on water-related practices and policies. This tool provides policy makers, researchers and advocates with a low-cost, efficient method to gather national data on school-level beverage access.
To evaluate the risk of phlebitis associated with chlorhexidine-coated polyurethane catheters in peripheral veins.
A randomized, double-blinded trial comparing chlorhexidine-coated polyurethane catheters with uncoated polyurethane catheters.
A university hospital.
Adult medicine and surgery patients.
Certified registered nurse anesthetists or an infusion team consisting of nurses and physicians inserted the catheters. Catheter insertion sites were scored twice daily for evidence of phlebitis. At the time catheters were removed, a quantitative blood culture was performed, and catheters were sonicated for quantitative culture.
Of 221 evaluable catheters, phlebitis developed in 18 (17%) of 105 coated catheters, compared to 27 (23%) of 116 uncoated catheters (relative risk [RR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 0.43-1.26; P=.32). By survival analysis, chlorhexidine-coated catheters had a lower risk of phlebitis during the first 3 days (P=.06), but not when all catheters were considered in both patient groups (P=.31). In the absence of catheter colonization, the incidence of phlebitis was 21% (16/76) and 24% (20/86) for coated and uncoated catheters, respectively (P=.85), whereas in the presence of catheter colonization, the incidence of phlebitis was 14% (1/7) and 80% (4/5) for coated and uncoated catheters, respectively (RR, 0.18; CI95, 0.03-1.15; P=.07).
The risk of phlebitis in the presence of catheter colonization was 82% lower for chlorhexidinecoated polyurethane catheters compared to otherwise identical uncoated catheters.
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