To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Gestational nutrition is widely recognized to affect an offspring’s future risk of lifestyle-related diseases, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. As folic acid (FA) is a nutrient essential for modulating DNA methylation, we sought to determine how maternal FA intake during early pregnancy might influence tumor sensitivity in an offspring. Dams were maintained on a FA-depleted (FA(−)) or normal (2 mg FA/kg; FA(+)) diet from 2 to 3 days before mating to 7 days post-conception, and their offspring were challenged with chemical tumorigenesis using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a)anthracene and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for skin and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide for tongue. In both squamous tissues, tumorigenesis was more progressive in the offspring from FA(−) than FA(+) dams. Notably, in the skin of FA(−) offspring, the expression and activity of cylindromatosis (Cyld) were decreased due to the altered DNA methylation status in its promoter region, which contributed to increased tumorigenesis coupled with inflammation in the FA(−) offspring. Thus, we conclude that maternal FA insufficiency during early pregnancy is able to promote neoplasm progression in the offspring through modulating DNA methylation, such as Cyld. Moreover, we propose, for the first time, “innate” utero nutrition as the third cause of tumorigenesis besides the known causes—hereditary predisposition and acquired environmental factors.
Collusion is a largely unconscious, dynamic bond, which may occur between patients and clinicians, between patients and family members, or between different health professionals. It is widely prevalent in the palliative care setting and provokes intense emotions, unreflective behavior, and negative impact on care. However, research on collusion is limited due to a lack of conceptual clarity and robust instruments to investigate this complex phenomenon. We have therefore developed the Collusion Classification Grid (CCG), which we aimed to evaluate with regard to its potential utility to analyze instances of collusion, be it for the purpose of supervision in the clinical setting or research.
Situations of difficult interactions with patients with advanced disease (N = 10), presented by clinicians in supervision with a liaison psychiatrist were retrospectively analyzed by means of the CCG.
1) All items constituting the grid were mobilized at least once; 2) one new item had to be added; and 3) the CCG identified different types of collusion.
Significance of results
This case series of collusions assessed with the CCG is a first step before the investigation of larger samples with the CCG. Such studies could search and identify setting-dependent and recurrent types of collusions, and patterns emerging between the items of the CCG. A better grasp of collusion could ultimately lead to a better understanding of the impact of collusion on the patient encounter and clinical decision-making.
Few studies have reported the association between the Japanese diet as food score and mortality. This study aimed to investigate adherence to the Japanese food score associated with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. A total of 58 767 (23 162 men and 34 232 women) Japanese participants aged 40–79 years, who enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study between 1988 and 1990, were included. The Japanese food score was derived from the components of seven food groups (beans and bean products, fresh fishes, vegetables, Japanese pickles, fungi, seaweeds and fruits) based on the FFQ. The total score ranged from 0 to 7, and participants were divided into five categories based on scores (0–2, 3, 4, 5 and 6–7). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality based on sex were estimated using Cox proportional models. During the follow-up period until 2009, 11 692 participants with all-cause, 3408 with CVD and 4247 with cancer died. The multivariable HR in the 6–7 and 0–2 Japanese food score groups were 0·93 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·01) in men and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·75, 0·90) in women for all-cause mortality and 0·89 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·04) in men and 0·66 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·77) in women for CVD mortality. Our findings suggest that adherence to the Japanese food score consisting of food combinations characterised by a Japanese diet may help in preventing all-cause and CVD mortality, especially in women.
Higher daytime cortisol levels because of a hyperactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have been reported in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The elevated glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of the oligodendrocytes that are responsible for myelinating the axons of white matter fibre tracts.
To evaluate the relationship between white matter integrity and serum cortisol levels during a first depressive episode in drug-naive patients with MDD (MDD group) using a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method.
The MDD group (n = 29) and a healthy control group (n = 47) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans and an analysis was conducted using TBSS. Morning blood samples were obtained from both groups for cortisol measurement.
Compared with the controls, the MDD group had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy values (P<0.05, family-wise error (FWE)-corrected) in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus and anterior thalamic radiation. The fractional anisotropy values of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus and anterior thalamic radiation had significantly negative correlations with the serum cortisol levels in the MDD group (P<0.05, FWE-corrected).
Our findings indicate that the elevated cortisol levels in the MDD group may injure the white matter integrity in the frontal–subcortical and frontal–limbic circuits.
The aim of the study was to develop the Japanese versions of Executive Interview (J-EXIT25) and Executive Clock Drawing Task (J-CLOX) and to evaluate the aspects of executive function that these two tests will be examining.
The concurrent validity and reliability of J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX were first examined in all participants (n = 201). Next, the relationship between the two tests was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC), correlation, and regression analyses in healthy participants (n = 45) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (n = 36) and dementia (n = 95).
Satisfactory concurrent validity and reliability of J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX were shown. ROC analysis indicated that J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX1 were superior to the Frontal Assessment Battery, but inferior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), in discriminating between non-dementia and dementia. J-EXIT25, J-CLOX1, and J-CLOX2 scores were significantly correlated with age, scores on the MMSE, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), and care level. In stepwise regression analyses of IADL scores, MMSE and J-EXIT25 were significantly independent predictors in men, and MMSE, age, and J-CLOX1 were significantly independent predictors in women. J-EXIT25, MMSE, and J-CLOX1 were significantly independent predictors in stepwise regression analysis of PSMS scores, and J-EXIT25 was the only significantly independent predictor in stepwise regression analysis of care level.
J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX are valid and reliable instruments for assessment of executive function in older people. The present results suggest that these tests have common and distinct psychometric properties in the assessment of executive function.
Background: The aim of this study was to identify the neural correlates of each component of the clock drawing test (CDT) in drug-naïve patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) using single photon emission computed tomography.
Methods: The participants were 95 drug-naïve patients with AD. The Rouleau CDT was used to score the clock drawings. The score for the Rouleau CDT (R total) is separated into three components: the scores for the clock face (R1), the numbers (R2), and the hands (R3). A multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship of each score (i.e. R total, R1, R2, and R3) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Age, gender, and education were included as covariates. The statistical threshold was set to a family-wise error (FWE)-corrected p value of 0.05 at the voxel level.
Results: The R total score was positively correlated with rCBF in the bilateral parietal and posterior temporal lobes and the right middle frontal gyrus. R1 was not significantly positively correlated with rCBF, R2 was significantly positively correlated with rCBF in the right posterior temporal lobe and the left posterior middle temporal lobe, and R3 was significantly positively correlated with rCBF in the bilateral parietal lobes, the right posterior temporal lobe, the right middle frontal gyrus, and the right occipital lobe.
Conclusions: Various brain regions were associated with each component of the CDT. These results suggest that an assessment of these components is useful for the detection of localization of brain damage.
We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids.
We investigated an association between the polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met and the response to mirtazapine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We also examined mirtazapine's effects on the serum BDNF and plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites in these patients.
Eighty-four patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD were treated with only mirtazapine for 4 weeks. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was detected by direct sequencing in the region, and serum BDNF levels and plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites were measured by ELISA and HPLC-ECD, respectively.
Mirtazapine treatment for 4 weeks significantly increased serum BDNF levels in the responders, whereas nonresponders showed significant decreases. No association was found between either of the two genotypes (Val/Val vs. Met-carriers) and the response to mirtazapine at T4 or the serum BDNF levels at T0. Mirtazapine did not alter the plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG).
The dynamics of serum BDNF levels, but not plasma levels of HVA and MHPG, reflect the response to mirtazapine treatment; the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in patients with depression is, however, associated with neither a particular response to mirtazapine treatment nor baseline serum BDNF levels.
Serum BDNF levels, but not plasma levels of HVA or MHPG, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism are related to the mirtazapine response in MDD.
A thin metal film with nano-apertures, called “nano-mesh electrode,” generates near-field lights near the electrode. We investigated carrier excitations in semiconductors by the near-field light. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method revealed that when the infrared light irradiates the Au nano-mesh electrode on Ge, near-field lights are generated and absorbed in the surface region of the Ge. In order to measure the photocurrent involved by near-filed lights, we fabricated a Schottky cell and applied a Au nano-mesh electrode on the n-type Ge. The efficiency of the Schottky cell with the Au nano-mesh electrode improved in infrared region compared to plain the Au-film Schottky cell. The agreement between theoretical simulations and experiments indicates that near-field lights enhance the carrier excitation in the semiconductor.
The three-dimensional structure of crack tip dislocations in single crystal silicon was observed by combining high-voltage electron microscopy and tomography. It was revealed that dislocations cross-slipped proximal to the crack tip even in the initial stages of plastic deformation. The local stress intensity factor along the crack front was calculated by taking into account the experimentally determined dislocation character. Based on these observations and calculations, a model to account for the sequential multiplication of dislocation sources along the crack front is proposed.
We investigated whether the small litter size in the 129 inbred mouse strain results from a reduction in oocyte fertilizability. Sensitivity of the zona pellucida to α-chymotrypsin was examined for oocytes collected at 14 h (shortly after ovulation), 17 h, and 20 h after hCG injection. Passage of spermatozoa through the zona pellucida (using an in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique) and the density of cortical granules were examined for oocytes collected at 14 and 17 h after hCG injection. The capability of the oolemma to fuse with the sperm plasma membrane was also evaluated by IVF using zona-free eggs. The zona pellucida became markedly resistant to the enzyme 17 h after hCG injection. IVF rates significantly decreased at this time. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the density of cortical granules. When zona-free oocytes were inseminated, high fertilization rates were obtained at both 17 and 14 h after hCG injection. These results indicate that accelerated modification of the zona pellucida primarily causes a decreased fertilizability of oocytes in 129 mice, resulting in the low reproductive performance of this strain.
Previous studies have reported the association between advanced paternal
age at birth and the risk of autistic-spectrum disorder in offspring,
including offspring with intellectual disability.
To test whether an association between advanced paternal age at birth is
found in offspring with high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder (i.e.
offspring without intellectual disability).
A case–control study was conducted in Japan. The participants consisted
of individuals with full-scale IQ ⩾ 70, with a DSM–IV autistic disorder
or related diagnosis. Unrelated healthy volunteers were recruited as
controls. Parental ages were divided into tertiles (i.e. three age
classes). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using
logistic regression analyses, with an adjustment for age, gender and
Eighty-four individuals with autistic-spectrum disorder but without
intellectual disability and 208 healthy controls were enrolled. Increased
paternal, but not maternal, age was associated with an elevated risk of
high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder. A one-level advance in
paternal age class corresponded to a 1.8-fold increase in risk, after
adjustment for covariates.
Advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk for
high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder.
Immune dysfunction has been proposed as a mechanism for the pathophysiology
of autistic-spectrum disorders. The selectin family of adhesion molecules
plays a prominent role in immune/inflammatory responses. We determined the
serum levels of three types of soluble-form selectin (sP, sL and sE) in 15
men with high-functioning autism and 22 age-matched healthy controls by
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of sP-selectin and sL-selectin
were significantly lower in patients than in controls. Furthermore,
sP-selectin levels were negatively correlated with impaired social
development during early childhood.
This paper deals with a problem of nondestructive testing for a composite system formed by the connection of a steel beam and a reinforced concrete beam. The small vibrations of the composite beam are described by a differential system where a coupling takes place between longitudinal and bending motions. The motion is governed in space by two second order and two fourth order differential operators, which are coupled in the lower order terms by the shearing, k, and axial, μ, stiffness coefficients of the connection. The coefficients k and μ define the mechanical model of the connection between the steel beam and the concrete beam and contain direct information on the integrity of the system. In this paper we study the inverse problem of determining k and μ by mixed data. The inverse problem is transformed to a variational problem for a cost function which includes boundary measurements of Neumann data and also some interior measurements. By computing the Gateaux derivatives of the functional, an algorithm based on the projected gradient method is proposed for identifying the unknown coefficients. The results of some numerical simulations on real steel-concrete beams are presented and discussed.
We simulate the accretion disk evaporation to study the changes of accretion disk structure during the state transition from the soft state to the hard state. We performed 2 dimensional MHD simulations by including the heat conduction process. We assume the axisymmetric accretion and put a cold rotating gas torus in a hot halo in hydrostatic equilibrium initially. Weak magnetic fields are threaded vertically. Heat conduction equation and MHD equations are solved separately according to the time splitting method. We obtained the result that accretion disk is heated by the hot corona and the hot gas evaporates from the accretion disk surface. We found that magnetic fields lines bended by disk rotation restrict the energy transport vertically and make disk evaporation ineffective.
Congenital achromatopsia is a stationary retinal disorder with
autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by significant
attenuation of cone-photoreceptor function. Symptoms include
photophobia, nystagmus, and poor visual acuity from birth. Unlike in
cone or cone–rod dystrophies, the retinal fundus usually appears
normal. Here we describe two siblings with congenital achromatopsia,
who exhibit different ophthalmic phenotypes. History was taken, and
ophthalmic examinations were performed in a 7-year-old girl and her
5-year-old brother, who were referred to our department because of poor
visual acuity. Two of their grandparents were brother and sister,
suggesting an autosomal recessive transmission in inheritance. They
have been followed for more than 13 years since the initial evaluation.
Symptoms, visual acuity, and kinetic visual field were very similar to
each other, consistent with findings of typical congenital
achromatopsia. However, color-vision tests suggested that the brother
had residual color discrimination, but the sister did not. The siblings
had different full-field electroretinographic and spectral-sensitivity
findings: residual cone functions were detected in only the brother, in
agreement with his residual color vision. They also had different
findings of retinal fundi and ocular refractions: the sister had
bilaterally atrophic-appearing macular lesions and myopic errors. In
contrast, the brother remains hyperopia and has exhibited no specific
retinal findings until age 18 years. The causes why both complete and
incomplete achromats occur in the siblings are uncertain but might be
caused by modifying effects of sex-related genes or by environmental
factors influencing certain gene regulations in cone photoreceptors.
The coercive field measured from ferroelectric hysteresis loop for pure and Mg:SLT (0.5 mol% doped) crystals were found to be independent of ramp rate of voltage, while it depends strongly on ramp rate for Mg:SLT (1 mol% doped) crystals. The measured coercive field decreased monotonously depending on the Mg concentration and low Ec value of 6 kV/cm is obtained for Mg(1.0 mol%)SLT crystal. Internal field of about 1 kV/cm present in pure SLT completely gets vanished in Mg(1.0 mol%)SLT. Spontaneous polarization is insensitive to the Mg addition. The origin of the internal field and large changes in switching fields appear largely to be dependent on the [Li]/[Li+Ta] ratio in crystals. On repeated cycling, the coercive field is found to have a marginal variation in pure and Mg doped SLT crystals.
We studied the effect of anisotropic cosmic-ray (CR) diffusion for Parker instability by two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. We investigated two cases: a mechanical perturbation case and an explosional perturbation case. In the former case, the growth rate is proportional to the value of the diffusion coefficient of the CR. In the latter case, the growth rate becomes large in the early stages as the value of diffusion coefficient of the CR is getting small. But, after all, the result becomes the same as the former case in the late stages.
Ammonothermal growth of GaN was studied to determine its eventual utility for mass production of GaN bulk crystals. Dissolution of GaN in supercritical ammonia with 1 M NaNH2 was investigated through a weight loss method. The time dependence of the weight loss was examined at 500°C and 525°C. Since the weight loss did not reach saturation as a function of time, the solubility limit was not realized. However, experiments demonstrate that GaN has a negative temperature dependence of solubility in supercritical ammonobasic solutions. Based on this result, GaN was grown via fluid transport from metallic Ga to a free-standing GaN single crystal seed by placing the seed crystal in a higher temperature zone and the nutrient in a lower temperature zone. GaN films with thickness of 5 μm (Ga face) and 4 μm (N face) were simultaneously grown on the seed in three days. The surface morphology, optical property, and defect density were found to be different for films on Ga face and N face.
The mechanism for cleaning Cu surfaces using the vapor from organic acids was studied by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IR-RAS) and by analysis of products collected using a cold-trap placed downstream of a reactor. When formic acid vapor was exposed to oxidized Cu samples heated to about 200°C for about a half an hour, the oxides were reduced. The surface seemed to have a shiny metallic appearance but no Cu-containing volatile products were collected, and the decomposition of formic acid molecules into CO2 was observed. In contrast, using acetic acid vapor, Cu-containing etching products were collected and identified as a dinuclear Cu (II) acetate complex. The vapor treatment using formic and acetic acids can be reduced Cu oxides to have metallic Cu surfaces. Furthermore, controlling temperature and choice of organic acids enabled the advantageous establishment of a control for the reduction in, and etching of, the Cu oxides.