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The current study aimed to predict disability-adjusted life years (DALY) rate in Japan through 2040 with plausible future scenarios of fruit intake for neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes and kidney diseases (DKD).
Data from National Health and Nutrition Surveys and the Global Burden of Diseases study in 2017 were used. We developed an autoregressive integrated moving average model with four future scenarios. Reference scenario maintains the current trend. Best scenario assumes that the goal defined in Health Japan 21 is achieved in 2023 and is kept constant afterwards. Moderate scenario assumes that the goal is achieved in 2040. Constant scenario applies the same proportion of 2016 for the period between 2017 and 2040.
DALY rates in Japan were predicted for the period between 2017 and 2040.
Population aged more than than 20 years old.
In our reference forecast, the DALY rates in all-ages group were projected to be stable for CVD and continue increasing for neoplasms and DKD. Age group-specific DALY rates for these three disease groups were forecasted to decrease, with some exceptions. Among men aged 20–49 years, DALY attributable to CVD differed substantially between the scenarios, implying that there is a significant potential for reducing the burden of CVD by increasing fruit intake at the population level.
Our scenario analysis shows that higher fruit intake is associated with lower disease burden in Japan. Further research is required to assess which policies and interventions can be used to achieve an increase in fruit intake as modelled in the scenarios of the current study.
Amorphous LiCoO2-based positive electrode materials are synthesized by a mechanical milling technique. As a lithium oxy-acid, Li2SO4, Li3PO4, Li3BO3, Li2CO3, and LiNO3 are selected and milled with LiCoO2. XRD patterns indicate that reaction between LiCoO2 and these lithium oxy-acids proceeds. Amorphization mainly occurs, and several broad peaks attributable to cubic LiCoO2 are observed in all the samples. These amorphous active materials show mixed conductivities of electron and lithium ion. All-solid-state cells using the prepared amorphous active materials and the Li2.9B0.9S0.1O3.1 glass-ceramic electrolyte are fabricated and their charge-discharge properties are examined. The cells with only the 80LiCoO2·20Li2SO4 (mol%) and the 80LiCoO2·20Li3PO4 active materials function as secondary batteries. This is because higher lithium ionic conductivities are obtained in the 80LiCoO2·20Li2SO4 and 80LiCoO2·20Li3PO4 active materials than in the others. The largest capacity is obtained in the cell with the 80LiCoO2·20Li2SO4 active material because of its good formability and high lithium ionic conductivity. In addition, the cell with the 80LiCoO2·20Li2SO4 positive electrode active material shows the better cycle and rate performance than that with the crystalline LiCoO2. It is noted that the amorphization with lithium oxy-acids is a promising technique for achieving a novel active material with better electrochemical performance.
Congenital atresia of the left coronary artery is a very rare condition. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy who was followed-up at our outpatient clinic from 6 months of age because of heart murmur. He had no symptoms for more than 10 years, and his left ventricular contraction was normal. Exercise electrocardiogram was performed at 7 and 10 years of age, and ST depression was not observed. He presented with chest pain and syncope on exertion at the ages of 11 and 12 years, respectively, and ST depression on exercise electrocardiogram was detected for the first time at 13 years of age. Cardiac echocardiography showed a high-choic antero-lateral papillary muscle of the mitral valve, prolapse of the mitral anterior leaflet, and mild mitral valve regurgitation. Coronary angiography did not demonstrate antegrade left coronary flow or dilation of the right coronary artery. We performed coronary artery bypass grafting using the left internal thoracic artery. Postoperatively, the ST depression resolved, and his exercise tolerability improved.
Higher daytime cortisol levels because of a hyperactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have been reported in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The elevated glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of the oligodendrocytes that are responsible for myelinating the axons of white matter fibre tracts.
To evaluate the relationship between white matter integrity and serum cortisol levels during a first depressive episode in drug-naive patients with MDD (MDD group) using a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method.
The MDD group (n = 29) and a healthy control group (n = 47) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans and an analysis was conducted using TBSS. Morning blood samples were obtained from both groups for cortisol measurement.
Compared with the controls, the MDD group had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy values (P<0.05, family-wise error (FWE)-corrected) in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus and anterior thalamic radiation. The fractional anisotropy values of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus and anterior thalamic radiation had significantly negative correlations with the serum cortisol levels in the MDD group (P<0.05, FWE-corrected).
Our findings indicate that the elevated cortisol levels in the MDD group may injure the white matter integrity in the frontal–subcortical and frontal–limbic circuits.
Efficient water desalination constitutes a major challenge for the next years and reverse osmosis membranes will play a key role to achieve this target. In this work, a high-performance reverse osmosis nanocomposite membrane was prepared by interfacial polymerization in presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The effect of carbon nanotubes on the chlorine resistance, antifouling and desalination performance of the nanocomposite membranes was studied. We found that the addition of carbon nanotubes not only improved the membrane performance in terms of flow and antifouling, but also inhibited the chlorine degradation of these membranes. Several reports have acknowledged the benefits of adding carbon nanotubes to aromatic PA nanocomposite membranes, but little attention has been paid to the mechanisms related to the improvement of flow rate, selectivity and chlorine tolerance. We carried out a comprehensive study of the chemical and physical effects of carbon nanotubes on the fully crosslinked polyamide network. The chemical structure, chlorine resistance and membrane degradation was studied by several analytical techniques, permeation and fouling studies, whereas the microstructure of the nanocomposite was studied by small and wide angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics. We found that the addition of the nanotube affects the interfacial polymerization, resulting in a polymer network with smaller pore size and higher sodium and chlorine rejection. We simulated the hydration of the membrane in seawater and found that the radial distribution function of water confined in the pores of the nanocomposite membrane exhibited smaller clusters of water molecules, thus suggesting a dense membrane structure. We analysed the network mobility and found that the nanotube provides mechanical stability to the polymer matrix. This study presents solid evidence towards more efficient and robust reverse osmosis membranes using carbon nanotubes as mechanical reinforcing and chlorine protection additive.
To control an input energy for a load, an impedance control with a gap distance of an electron beam diode was studied using an intense pulsed-power generator. The output current of the pulsed-power generator as a function of the gap distance of electron beam diode was measured. It indicated that the behaviors of the experimentally obtained peak current and the theoretically obtained space-charge limited current were found to decrease with an increase in the gap distance. The input energy for the load was estimated from the output current, which decreased with an increase in the gap distance. It also revealed the space-charge limited current suppresses the input energy for the load with a decade.
We investigated an association between the polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met and the response to mirtazapine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We also examined mirtazapine's effects on the serum BDNF and plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites in these patients.
Eighty-four patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD were treated with only mirtazapine for 4 weeks. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was detected by direct sequencing in the region, and serum BDNF levels and plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites were measured by ELISA and HPLC-ECD, respectively.
Mirtazapine treatment for 4 weeks significantly increased serum BDNF levels in the responders, whereas nonresponders showed significant decreases. No association was found between either of the two genotypes (Val/Val vs. Met-carriers) and the response to mirtazapine at T4 or the serum BDNF levels at T0. Mirtazapine did not alter the plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG).
The dynamics of serum BDNF levels, but not plasma levels of HVA and MHPG, reflect the response to mirtazapine treatment; the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in patients with depression is, however, associated with neither a particular response to mirtazapine treatment nor baseline serum BDNF levels.
Serum BDNF levels, but not plasma levels of HVA or MHPG, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism are related to the mirtazapine response in MDD.
This study describes a low-energy atom scattering system that was combined with a time-of-flight spectrometer for insulator surface structural analysis. We show one example. MgO(001) crystal was used to study the surface analysis technique and is illustrated here. Insulator surface structure is difficult to study because of the charging effects during electron or ion-beam bombardment. Nevertheless, structural analysis of insulator surfaces is very important in fundamental research as well as in technology fields.
The Osaka University Aged Twin Registry (OUATR) is the largest adult twin registry in Japan. Since its establishment in 1974, the OUATR has conducted a number of studies with particular focus on the environmental contribution to physical–cognitive–mental aging, longevity and aging-dependent diseases in later adulthood. The registry consists of 12,000 pairs of Japanese twins born between 1900 and 1935. Two hundred and fifty pairs of twins have undergone comprehensive medical examination to date. Follow-up questionnaires have been mailed out on a regular basis, for the purpose of checking current vital statuses, health conditions, and so forth. The main objective of this longitudinal twin study is to contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and the promotion of successful aging.
More than 100 pairs of adult twins, reared apart and growing old separately, have participated in the Japanese Study of Adult Twins Reared Apart and Growing Old Separately since it began in 1974. The subjects are 161 pairs of adult twins born between 1910 and 1945 in Japan. The main focus of this study is to investigate the influences of environmental factors and life history on life satisfaction and psychological well-being in later adulthood. A mail survey has been conducted on these twins each year since 1974. To date, the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale, Maudsley Personality Inventory, Newgarten Life Satisfaction Index, comprehensive medical examinations and personal interviews have been conducted for 12 twin pairs residing in various areas of Japan.
In normal trichromats, the long- (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive
(M) pigment genes are arranged in a head-to-tandem array on the X
chromosome. Two amino acids at positions 277 and 285, encoded by exon 5 of
the L and M genes, respectively, are essential for the spectral difference
between L and M pigments whose spectral peaks are at approximately 560 and
530 nm. Intragenic or intergenic unequal crossing-over commonly occurs
between the highly homologous L and M genes, resulting in red-green color
vision deficiencies. The dichromacy is usually associated with a single L
gene for deuteranopia or a single 5′ L-M 3′ hybrid gene with
M-gene exon 5 for protanopia. We clinically diagnosed a total of 88 male
dichromats using a Nagel model I anomaloscope, which included one
unclassified subject in addition to 31 protanopes and 56 deuteranopes. The
objective of this study was to characterize the phenotype of the subject
and to determine the genotype of his X-linked pigment genes. The subject
accepted not only any red-green mixture but also an extended yellow-scale
range at each matching point (i.e. 20 to 32 scale units at the green
primary and 3.5 to 6 scale units at the red primary). The slopes of
regression lines were in the range of −0.34 to −0.23, while
the mean slopes for the protanopes and deuteranopes were −0.38 and
−0.01, respectively. Spectral sensitivity tests showed that the
subject's curve was shifted between the protanope and deuteranope
curves. Molecular analysis revealed a novel form of a single pigment gene
with a unique arrangement of exon 5 (Y277 from the L gene and A285 from
the M gene). The predicted λmax (541 to 546 nm) of the
unique pigment was closer to the M than to the L pigment. Our outcome
suggests that intragenic unequal crossing-over may have occurred between
amino acid positions 279 and 283.
Congenital achromatopsia is a stationary retinal disorder with
autosomal recessive inheritance that is characterized by loss of color
discrimination, low visual acuity, photophobia, and nystagmus. This
disorder has been shown to be associated with CNGA3,
CNGB3, and GNAT2 mutations, and the frequency of
mutations in the CNGA3 gene (encoding α subunit of the
cone-specific cGMP-gated cation channel) was 23–33% in European
populations. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that
CNGA3 mutations are also responsible for congenital achromatopsia
in Japanese patients. DNA from venous blood samples from a total of 14
patients from 13 Japanese pedigrees was prepared. Mutation screening of
the CNGA3 gene was performed using direct sequencing and
PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Compound
heterozygous missense mutations (p.R436W and p.L633P, the latter of which
was novel) were identified in one patient only, a 22-year-old female.
Neither of these two mutations was found in 150 Japanese control
individuals. The patient's parents and sister carried one of these
mutations each but were not affected. No mutations in the CNGB3
or GNAT2 genes were identified in the patient. Clinically,
best-corrected visual acuity was 0.1 in both eyes. No specific findings
were obtained in funduscopy. Optical coherence topography revealed a
normal foveal thickness but a 20% decrease in parafoveal thickness.
Ganzfeld full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) showed normal responses in
rod and mixed rod-plus-cone ERGs but no response in cone or 30-Hz flicker
ERGs. Spectral sensitivity on a white background revealed a curve with
only one peak at around 500 nm, which fits the absorption spectrum of
human rhodopsin. L633, conserved among vertebrate orthologs of human
CNGA3, is a hydrophobic residue forming part of the carboxy-terminal
leucine zipper (CLZ) domain, which is functionally important in the
mediation of intracellular interactions. To our knowledge, this is the
first report of a Japanese complete achromat with CNGA3
mutations, and of any patient with a missense mutation within the CLZ
domain. The outcome suggests low frequency (7%, 1/14) of
CNGA3 mutations in Japanese patients.
Hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns were formed on indium tin oxide substrates, and thick films of poly(phenylsilsesquioxane) (PhSiO3/2) particles, prepared by the sol-gel process, were selectively deposited onto hydrophilic areas of the substrates by electrophoresis. The films composed of PhSiO3/2 particles became transparent with morphological changes from aggregates of particles to a continuous phase after a heat treatment. After heat treatment at 200 °C, convex-shaped PhSiO3/2 micropatterns were formed on the hydrophilic region of the pattern. Moreover, the height of micropatterns was controlled by the deposition time. This patterning technique has a wide variety of applications such as fabrication of micro-optical components.
In general, twins have delayed language development early in childhood compared with singletons. The purpose of this study was to clarify the overall linguistic features of twins. A Japanese version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) was administered in 24 twin pairs (aged 3 to 4 years) at their own homes. The overall language abilities of the twins were in the normal range (based on ITPA normative data: mean scale score 36.0 ± 6.0 points), and for the ITPA subtests only, Auditory Reception fell within the range of language disorder (mean scale score 24.9 ± 5.1 points). The findings suggest that in 3- to 4-year-old Japanese twins, overall language abilities are not delayed. However, there may be specific difficulties with auditory reception skills.
The definition and nature of twin language has been a focus of recent studies concerned with the phenomenon. There has been a call for a tighter definition and understanding of the meaning of twin language (Thorpe et al., 2001). This article sought to identify social factors associated with the parent report of twin language and thus provide further understanding of the phenomenon. Data from 583 mothers of twins aged 25 to 59 months were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Factors included in the modeling of parent-report twin language included social experience factors such as presence of siblings, attendance at preschool education and reports of nonverbal play. It was found that twin pairs who didn't have an older sibling, who showed frequent nonverbal play and who didn't attend preschool were more likely to have a twin language. Moreover, in the group not having an older sibling, the influence of whether twins attended preschool or not was strong and the odds ratio was 0.589 (95% confidence intervals 0.360–0.963). The findings suggest that social experience factors are important predictors of the parent reporting of twin language.
Congenital achromatopsia is a stationary retinal disorder with
autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by significant
attenuation of cone-photoreceptor function. Symptoms include
photophobia, nystagmus, and poor visual acuity from birth. Unlike in
cone or cone–rod dystrophies, the retinal fundus usually appears
normal. Here we describe two siblings with congenital achromatopsia,
who exhibit different ophthalmic phenotypes. History was taken, and
ophthalmic examinations were performed in a 7-year-old girl and her
5-year-old brother, who were referred to our department because of poor
visual acuity. Two of their grandparents were brother and sister,
suggesting an autosomal recessive transmission in inheritance. They
have been followed for more than 13 years since the initial evaluation.
Symptoms, visual acuity, and kinetic visual field were very similar to
each other, consistent with findings of typical congenital
achromatopsia. However, color-vision tests suggested that the brother
had residual color discrimination, but the sister did not. The siblings
had different full-field electroretinographic and spectral-sensitivity
findings: residual cone functions were detected in only the brother, in
agreement with his residual color vision. They also had different
findings of retinal fundi and ocular refractions: the sister had
bilaterally atrophic-appearing macular lesions and myopic errors. In
contrast, the brother remains hyperopia and has exhibited no specific
retinal findings until age 18 years. The causes why both complete and
incomplete achromats occur in the siblings are uncertain but might be
caused by modifying effects of sex-related genes or by environmental
factors influencing certain gene regulations in cone photoreceptors.
A 12-year-old boy presented with tachycardia and cardiomegaly. An electrocardiogram showed atrial flutter with a ventricular rate of 170 beats/min. The echocardiogram showed left ventricular dilation, with decreased contractility. Electromyography confirmed the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy. The atrial flutter was converted to sinus rhythm by electroversion, leading to restoration of normal cardiac function. Our case illustrates that atrial flutter can be an early sign of the cardiac complications of myotonic dystrophy in childhood.
Several lipomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus have previously been reported to date. We present a 21-year-old case with nasal lipoma situated on the left posterior of part of the nasal septum, operated on endoscopically. The present case is, to our knowledge, the first report on nasal lipoma in the adult.
Thin film technology is rapidly evolving today, and the characterization of the thin film and its surface have become very important issue not only from scientific but also technological viewpoints. Although x-ray diffraction measurements have been used as suitable evaluation methods in crystallography studies, its application to the structural evaluation of the thin films, especially organic one having the low electron densities, is not easy due to the small amounts of scattering volume and the high obstructive scattering noise from the substrate. However, the x-ray diffraction measurements under grazing incidence will aid not only in overcoming the such problems but also in analyzing in-plane structure of the thin films. Therefore, so-called grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) has been recognized as one of the most powerful tools for the surface and thin film studies.
In modern technology, thin-layered materials with layer thickness in nanometer ranges have been utilized for various advanced components such as integrated circuits, magnetic heads and disks, X-ray mirrors and coated window glasses. For the analysis of such materials, powerful probes, fluorescence(TXRF)1), diffraction(TXRD) 2-4) and reflectivity(GIXR) 5-7), formed by X-rays in conjunction with total reflection phenomena can provide important information on element composition, crystalline structure, layer thickness, electron density and interfacial roughness.