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Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders.
To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder.
Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n = 215).
GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence.
GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients.
Mechanical properties are vital for living cells, and various models have been developed to study the mechanical behavior of cells. However, there is debate regarding whether a cell behaves more similarly to a “cortical shell – liquid core” structure (membrane-like) or a homogeneous solid (cytoskeleton-like) when experiencing stress by mechanical forces. Unlike most experimental methods, which concern the small-strain deformation of a cell, we focused on the mechanical behavior of a cell undergoing small to large strain by conducting microinjection experiments on zebrafish embryo cells. The power law with order of 1.5 between the injection force and the injection distance indicates that the cell behaves as a homogenous solid at small-strain deformation. The linear relation between the rupture force and the microinjector radius suggests that the embryo behaves as membrane-like when subjected to large-strain deformation. We also discuss the possible reasons causing the debate by analyzing the mechanical properties of F-actin filaments.