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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
The acanthocephalan fauna of Australian freshwater fishes was documented from field surveys, a literature survey and examination of specimens registered in Australian museums. From the 4030 fishes, representing 78 of the 354 Australian freshwater fish species (22%), examined for infection seven species of acanthocephalan were recovered. These species comprised five endemic species, three in endemic genera, two species in cosmopolitan genera, one species not fully identified and 1 putative exotic species recovered from eight species of fish. Of these Edmonsacanthus blairi from Melanotaenia splendida, was the only acanthocephalan found at a relatively high prevalence of 38·6%. These findings are indicative of a highly endemic and possibly depauperate acanthocephalan fauna. Species richness was higher in the tropical regions than the temperate regions of the country. Exotic acanthocephalan species have either not been introduced with their exotic hosts or have been unable to establish their life cycles in Australian conditions. Consequently, acanthocephalans have not yet invaded endemic Australian fish hosts.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
Transgenic fish in development for aquaculture could escape from farms and interbreed with wild relatives in the nearby environment. Predicting whether escapes would result in transgene introgression is a major challenge in assessing environmental risks of transgenic fish. Previous studies have simulated gene flow from transgenic fish using mathematical modeling of fitness traits to predict the relative selective value of transgenic genotypes. Here, we present the first study of gene flow over the full life cycle in openly-breeding populations of transgenic animals, along with measurement of fitness traits. We conducted two invasion experiments in which we released two lines of growth-enhanced transgenic fish (T67 and T400), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), into populations of wild-type (W) medaka in structured mesocosms. After several generations, the frequency of transgenic fish varied across replicates in the first invasion experiment (6 months), but the frequency of transgenic fish decreased in the second experiment (19 months). We also measured selected fitness traits in transgenic and wild-type medaka because these traits could be used to predict the relative selective value of a genotype. We found that: T400 males were more fertile than W males; offspring of W females lived longer than those with transgenic mothers; and W and T67 females reached sexual maturity sooner than T400 females. In contrast with other research that reported larger transgenic males had a mating advantage, we found that W males obtained more matings with females than T males; genetic background effects may account for our differing results as we compared W and T fish derived from different strains. The decreasing frequency of transgenic fish in the second invasion experiment suggests that transgenic fish had a selective disadvantage in the experimental environment. Our finding of transgenic advantage of some fitness traits and wild-type advantage in others is consistent with our invasion experiment results.
Neuroinflammation resulting from chronic reactive microgliosis is thought to contribute to age-related neurodegeneration, as well as age-related neurodegenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). Support of this theory comes from studies reporting a progressive, age-associated increase in microglia with an activated phenotype. Although the underlying cause(s) of this microglial reactivity is idiopathic, an accepted therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD is inhibition of microglial activation using anti-inflammatory agents. Although the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment for AD remains equivocal, microglial inhibition is being tested as a potential treatment for additional neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Given the important and necessary functions of microglia in normal brain, careful evaluation of microglial function in the aged brain is a necessary first step in targeting more precise treatment strategies for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Studies from our laboratory have shown multiple age-related changes in microglial morphology and function that are suggestive of cellular senescence. In this manuscript, we review current knowledge of microglia in the aging brain and present new, unpublished work that further supports the theory that microglia experience an age-related decline in proliferative function as a result of cellular senescence.
The aim of the present study was to compare the response of a range of atherogenic and thrombogenic risk markers to two dietary levels of saturated fatty acid (SFA) substitution with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in students living in a university hall of residence. Although the benefits of such diets have been reported for plasma lipoproteins in high-risk groups, more needs to be known about effects of more modest SFA-MUFA substitutions over the long term and in young healthy adults. In a parallel design over 16 weeks, fifty-one healthy young subjects were randomised to one of two diets: (1) a moderate-MUFA diet in which 16 g dietary SFA/100 g total fatty acids were substituted with MUFA (n 25); (2) a high-MUFA diet in which 33 g dietary SFA/100 g total fatty acids were substituted with MUFA (n 26). All subjects followed an 8-week run-in diet (reference diet), with a fatty acid composition close to the UK average values. There were no differences in plasma lipid responses between the two diets over 16 weeks of the study with similar reductions in total cholesterol (P <0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (P<0·01) in both groups; a small but significant reduction in HDL-cholesterol was also observed in both groups (P<0·01). Platelet responses to ADP (P<0·01) and arachidonic acid (P<0·05) differed with time on the two diets; at 16 weeks, platelet aggregatory response to ADP was significantly lower on the high-MUFA than the moderate-MUFA (P<0·01) diet; ADP responses were also significantly lower within this group at 8 (P<0·05) and 16 (P<0·01) weeks compared with baseline. There were no differences in fasting factor VII activity (factors VIIc and VIIag), fibrinogen concentration or tissue-type plasminogen activator activity between the diets. There were no differences in postprandial factor VIIc responses to a standard meal (area under the curve) between the diets after 16 weeks, but postprandial factor VIIc response was lower than on the high-MUFA diet compared with baseline (P<0·01). In conclusion, a high-MUFA diet sustains potentially beneficial effects on platelet aggregation and postprandial activation of factor VII. Moderate or high substitution of MUFA for SFA achieves similar reductions in fasting blood lipids in young healthy subjects.
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