The introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a treatment for medication-refractory essential tremor in the late 1980s revealed, for the first time, that “chronically” implanted brain hardware had the potential to modulate neurologic function with surprisingly low morbidity. Over time, the therapeutic promise of DBS has become evident in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. In some experienced centers, complex tremor disorders, such as posttraumatic Holmes tremor and the tremor of multiple sclerosis, are being increasingly targeted. More recently, other indications, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, major depression, and chronic pain, have been proposed. As the field has expanded, our knowledge about potential cognitive side effects of DBS has also expanded. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the impact of stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus internus, and ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus on symptoms in essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Also discussed are the emerging targets, what is known about the cognitive sequelae of DBS, and what has been learned about the complications and therapeutic failures.