To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in acute-care facilities may optimize antibiotic use and decrease antibiotic resistance. To explore the relationship between ASPs and clinical outcomes, we reviewed bivariate relationships between VA Medical Center (VAMC) complexity level and presence of an ASP, presence of an ASP and inpatient antibiotic use, and antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance or Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of national data using the following elements: a detailed survey of antimicrobial stewardship practices at VAMCs in 2012 which included facility complexity designations; data from the VA national Electronic Health Record (EHR) for inpatient antibiotic use (2009–2012 in days of therapy per 1,000 bed days of care); EHR laboratory data in 2013 for antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolates; and 2013 CDI rate data from the VA Inpatient Evaluation Center. These data were reviewed for assessment of the presence of ASPs and for antibiotic use and resistance. We assessed 4 groups of antibiotics for use and resistance: total antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Categorical, t test, or nonparametric analyses were performed, as appropriate. Results: 120 VAMCs were evaluated; 71% had ASPs. Proportions of VAMCs with ASPs were not significantly different by facility complexity level. Differences were observed between presence or absence of ASP and some antibiotic use groups (Table). Presence or absence of an ASP was not statistically associated with a difference in E. coli resistance (any antibiotic group examined) or CDI rates. In addition, antibiotic use (any group) did not statistically associate with E. coli resistance rates, and this result remained unchanged when stratified by presence or absence of an ASP. Conclusions: Total antibiotic use and fluroquinolone use were lower among facilities with ASPs than without, a finding consistent with ASP implementation reducing the amount of antibiotics prescribed. Although we did not find an association between facilities with an ASP and antibiotic resistance or CDI rates in this preliminary review, it sets the stage for future multivariate analyses. Furthermore, given the years of antibiotic use needed for development of resistance, the limited years evaluated may not have been sufficient to determine an impact, highlighting the need for further research into understanding clinical outcomes.
Background: Inappropriate use of MRSA-spectrum antibiotics is an important antimicrobial stewardship target. Contributors to inappropriate use include empiric treatment of patients who are determined to not be infected or who are infected but lack MRSA risk factors, and by excessive treatment duration when suspected MRSA infection is disproven. To characterize opportunities for improvement, we conducted a medical use evaluation (MUE) in 27 VA medical centers. The primary objectives were to assess the following proportions: (1) courses of unjustified empiric vancomycin therapy (patients in whom all antibacterials were halted within 2 days or without a principal or secondary discharge infection diagnosis); (2) courses of unjustified continuation of anti-MRSA therapy beyond day 4 (no MRSA risk factors or proven MRSA infection); and (3) excess anti-MRSA days of therapy (DOT), that is, DOT in unjustified empiric courses plus DOT after day 4 in unjustified continued courses. Methods: Clinical pharmacists performed retrospective, structured, manual record reviews of patients started on intravenous vancomycin on day 1 or 2 of hospitalization from June 2017 to May 2018. Exclusion criteria included surgical prophylaxis, recent MRSA infection, β-lactam allergy, renal insufficiency, severe immunosuppression, or infection that warranted anti-MRSA therapy other than vancomycin. Results: Of 2,493 evaluated patients, 1,320 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 44% of courses were initiated in the emergency department, 37% of patients had ≥1 risk factor for healthcare-associated infections, and 50% of patients had ≥2 SIRS criteria or required vasopressor support. The most common admission diagnoses were skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI, 40%; 68% nonpurulent) and pneumonia (27%; 46% without healthcare risk factors). Clinical cultures recovered MRSA from 8% of patients. Empiric therapy was not justified in 342 patients (26%; 57% were clinically stable). Continued therapy was unjustified in 46% of the 320 patients who received >4 days of anti-MRSA therapy. Of all days of anti-MRSA therapy, 23% were unjustified; 65% of these were due to unjustified empiric therapy. Site-specific variations in unjustified empiric therapy better correlated with the proportion of unjustified DOT than did unjustified continuation of therapy (Pearson correlation coefficients [PCC], 0.75 and 0.54, respectively) (Fig. 1). Facility-specific proportions of unjustified DOT modestly correlated with anti-MRSA DOT (PCC, 0.45; n = 27) (Fig. 2) but not the anti-MRSA standardized antimicrobial administration ratio (PCC, 0.15; n = 21). Conclusions: In this multicenter MUE, 26% of all days of anti-MRSA therapy lacked justification; this rate correlated with total facility-specific anti-MRSA DOT. Unnecessary empiric therapy, largely in the ED and for nonpurulent SSTIs and pneumonia without risk factors, was the principal contributor to unjustified DOT.
Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and motorically it is characterized by tremor, ridigity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Whilst it was historically considered to be a movement disorder there are multiple non-motor symptoms, which often precede the motor symptoms by years or even decades. These include dysautonomia, sleep disturbances, neuropsychiatric disturbances, pain, and sensory problems. These have a negative effect on quality of life and are associated with overall higher carer burden and, potentially, higher care costs whilst being frequently undeclared by patients.
Despite its seeming defeat at the hands of the new domestic melodrama and, later, the innovations of dramatic realism, the Gothic, beyond its heyday during period 1790–1830, continued to stalk the English stage well into the nineteenth century. Shape-shifting and refusing to die outright, the Gothic mode would inform melodrama, domestic drama, sensation drama and even the emerging realist dramas to the end of the century. Moreover, while according to received narratives of theatre history, the new modes of realism would claim a victorious precedence over the archaic drama of immured heroines and haunted castles, this chapter argues that as the fin de siècle loomed, attempts to repress the theatrical Gothic were met with an increasingly Gothic representation of the theatre itself within the wider popular and literary imagination.
The diagnosis of an advanced cancer in young adulthood can bring one's life to an abrupt halt, calling attention to the present moment and creating anguish about an uncertain future. There is seldom time or physical stamina to focus on forward-thinking, social roles, relationships, or dreams. As a result, young adults (YAs) with advanced cancer frequently encounter existential distress, despair, and question the purpose of their life. We sought to investigate the meaning and function of hope throughout YAs’ disease trajectory; to discern the psychosocial processes YAs employ to engage hope; and to develop a substantive theory of hope of YAs diagnosed with advanced cancer.
Thirteen YAs (ages 23–38) diagnosed with a stage III or IV cancer were recruited throughout the eastern and southeastern United States. Participants completed one semi-structured interview in-person, by phone, or Skype, that incorporated an original timeline instrument assessing fluctuations in hope and an online socio-demographic survey. Glaser's grounded theory methodology informed constant comparative methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation.
Findings from this study informed the development of the novel contingent hope theoretical framework, which describes the pattern of psychosocial behaviors YAs with advanced cancer employ to reconcile identities and strive for a life of meaning. The ability to cultivate the necessary agency and pathways to reconcile identities became contingent on the YAs’ participation in each of the psychosocial processes of the contingent hope theoretical framework: navigating uncertainty, feeling broken, disorienting grief, finding bearings, and identity reconciliation.
Significance of Results
Study findings portray the influential role of hope in motivating YAs with advanced cancer through disorienting grief toward an integrated sense of self that marries cherished aspects of multiple identities. The contingent hope theoretical framework details psychosocial behaviors to inform assessments and interventions fostering hope and identity reconciliation.
Historically, Parkinson's disease was viewed as a motor disorder and it is only in recent years that the spectrum of non-motor disorders associated with the condition has been fully recognised. There is a broad scope of neuropsychiatric manifestations, including depression, anxiety, apathy, psychosis and cognitive impairment. Patients are more predisposed to delirium, and Parkinson's disease treatments give rise to specific syndromes, including impulse control disorders, dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome and dopamine dysregulation syndrome. This article gives a broad overview of the spectrum of these conditions, describes the association with severity of Parkinson's disease and the degree to which dopaminergic degeneration and/or treatment influence symptoms. We highlight useful assessment scales that inform diagnosis and current treatment strategies to ameliorate these troublesome symptoms, which frequently negatively affect quality of life.
Emerging data suggest that recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) takes longer than previously thought. This paper examines trajectories for cognitive recovery up to 48 months post-mTBI, presenting these visually using a Sankey diagram and growth curve analysis.
This sample (n = 301) represents adults (≥16 years) from a population-based Brain Injury Outcomes in the New Zealand Community study over a 4-year follow-up on the CNS-Vital Signs neuropsychological test. Data were collected within 2 weeks of injury, and then at 1, 6, 12 and 48 months post-injury.
Significant improvement in cognitive functioning was seen up to 6 months post-injury. Using growth curve modelling, we found significant improvements in overall neurocognition from baseline to 6 months, on average participants improved one point per month (0.9; 95% CI 0.42–1.39) p < 0.001. No change in neurocognition was found within the time periods 6–12 months or 12–48 months. The Sankey highlighted that at each time point, a small proportion of participants remained unchanged or declined. Proportionally, few show any improvement after the first 6 months.
Most individuals remained stable or improved over time to 6 months post-injury. Summary statistics are informative regarding overall trends, but can mask differing trajectories for recovery. The Sankey diagram indicates that not all improve, as well as the potential impact of individuals moving in and out of the study. The Sankey diagram also indicated the level of functioning of those most likely to withdraw, allowing targeting of retention strategies.
In this article we engage in a critical examination of how local authority Housing Solutions staff, newly placed centre stage in preventing homelessness amongst prison leavers in Wales, understand and go about their work. Drawing on Carlen’s concept of ‘imaginary penalities’ and Ugelvik’s notion of ‘legitimation work’ we suggest practice with this group can be ritualistic and underpinned by a focus on prison leavers’ responsibilities over their rights, and public protection over promoting resettlement. In response we advocate for less-punitive justice and housing policies, underpinned by the right to permanent housing for all prison leavers and wherein stable accommodation is understood as the starting point for resettlement. The analysis presented in this article provides insights to how homelessness policies could play out in jurisdictions where more joint working between housing and criminal justice agencies are being pursued and/or preventative approaches to managing homelessness are being considered.
We study star formation and metallicity enrichment histories of 24 massive galaxies at 1.6 < z < 2.5. Deep slitless spectroscopy + imaging data set collected from multiple HST surveys allows robust determination of their SEDs. Our new SED modeling with no functional assumptions on star formation histories revels that 1. most of the sample galaxies have already formed >50% of their extant masses ∼1.5 Gyr before the time of observed redshifts, with a trend where more massive galaxies form earlier, 2. most of our galaxies already have stellar metallicities compatible with those of local early-type galaxies, and 3. inferred metallicities are on average ∼ 0.25 dex higher than observed gas-phase metallicities of star forming galaxies at the time of their formation. Continuation of low-level star formation, rather than abrupt termination of star forming activity, may explain the observed gap of metallicities.
The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) extends beyond the person who was injured. Family caregivers of adults with moderate to severe TBI frequently report increased burden, stress and depression. Few studies have examined the well-being of family members in the mild TBI population despite the latter representing up to 95% of all TBIs.
Five areas of well-being were examined in 99 family members (including parents, partners, siblings, other relatives, adult children, friends or neighbours) of adults (aged ≥16 years) with mild TBI. At 6- and 12-month post-injury, family members completed the Bakas Caregiver Outcomes Scale, Short Form-36 Health Survey, EQ-5D-3L, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Outcomes and change over time and associated factors were examined.
At 6 months, group mean scores for health-related quality of life for mental and physical components and overall health status were similar to the New Zealand (NZ) population. Mean scores for sleep, anxiety and depression were below clinically significant thresholds. From 6 to 12 months, there were significant improvements in Bakas Caregiver Outcomes Scale scores by 2.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.72–4.49), health-related quality of life (mental component) and EQ-5D-3L overall health (P = 0.01). Minimally clinically important differences were observed in overall health, anxiety, health-related quality of life and depression at 12 months. Female family members reported significant improvements in physical health over time, and more positive life changes were reported by those caring for males with TBI.
The findings suggest diminished burden over time for family members of adults with mild TBI.
Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common among children. However, their caregivers’ knowledge and understanding of symptoms may influence how the injury is managed.
To investigate the knowledge of New Zealand (NZ) parents about TBI and concussion.
Method and procedures:
Parents (n = 205) of children aged 5–13 years completed a pen-and-paper or online survey containing questions examining their knowledge of TBI terminology, TBI symptoms and knowledge about concussion management.
Main outcomes and results:
A high proportion (61%) of parents did not think that a concussion was the same as a brain injury. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was the most endorsed symptom of TBI. However, 69% of participants were aware that TBI could occur without LOC. On average, parents correctly identified 19.5 (67.3%) of the 29 symptoms of TBI, but also identified 2.0 (11.9%) of the 17 distractor symptoms as being TBI related. Demographic factors and experience of TBI/concussion were associated with TBI symptom identification accuracy and concussion knowledge.
Further education of parents is needed to ensure they recognise the signs and symptoms of concussion/mild TBI so that they can make informed decisions on how best to manage their child’s injury.
This article examines radical and socialist responses to Malthus's Essay on population, beginning with the response of William Godwin, Malthus's main object of attack, but focusing particularly upon the position adopted by his most important admirer, Robert Owen. The anti-Malthus position was promoted and sustained both by Owen and the subsequent Owenite movement. Owenites stressed both the extent of uncultivated land and the capacity of science to raise the productivity of the soil. The Owenite case, preached weekly in Owenite Halls of Science, and argued by its leading lecturer, John Watts, made a strong impact upon the young Frederick Engels working in Manchester in 1843–4. His denunciation of political economy in the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, heavily dependent upon the Owenite position, was what first encouraged Marx to engage with political economy. Marx initially reiterated the position of Engels and the Owenites in maintaining that population increase pressured means of employment rather than means of subsistence, and that competition rather than overpopulation caused economic crises. But in his later work, his main criticism of the Malthusian theory was its false conflation of history and nature.
Ultrasound applications are widespread, and their utility in resource-limited environments are numerous. In disasters, the use of ultrasound can help reallocate resources by guiding decisions on management and transportation priorities. These interventions can occur on-scene, at triage collection points, during transport, and at the receiving medical facility. Literature related to this specific topic is limited. However, literature regarding prehospital use of ultrasound, ultrasound in combat situations, and some articles specific to disaster medicine allude to the potential growth of ultrasound utilization in disaster response.
To evaluate the utility of point-of-care ultrasound in a disaster response based on studies involving ultrasonography in resource-limited environments.
A narrative review of MEDLINE, MEDLINE InProcess, EPub, and Embase found 20 articles for inclusion.
Experiences from past disasters, prehospital care, and combat experiences have demonstrated the value of ultrasound both as a diagnostic and interventional modality.
Current literature supports the use of ultrasound in disaster response as a real-time, portable, safe, reliable, repeatable, easy-to-use, and accurate tool. While both false positives and false negatives were reported in prehospital studies, these values correlate to accepted false positive and negative rates of standard in-hospital point-of-care ultrasound exams. Studies involving austere environments demonstrate the ability to apply ultrasound in extreme conditions and to obtain high-quality images with only modest training and real-time remote guidance. The potential for point-of-care ultrasound in triage and management of mass casualty incidents is there. However, as these studies are heterogeneous and observational in nature, further research is needed as to how to integrate ultrasound into the response and recovery phases.
Antibiotics are overprescribed for acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs). Guidelines provide criteria to determine which patients should receive antibiotics. We assessed congruence between documentation of ARI diagnostic and treatment practices with guideline recommendations, treatment appropriateness, and outcomes.
A multicenter quality improvement evaluation was conducted in 28 Veterans Affairs facilities. We included visits for pharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchitis, and upper respiratory tract infections (URI-NOS) that occurred during the 2015–2016 winter season. A manual record review identified complicated cases, which were excluded. Data were extracted for visits meeting criteria, followed by analysis of practice patterns, guideline congruence, and outcomes.
Of 5,740 visits, 4,305 met our inclusion criteria: pharyngitis (n = 558), rhinosinusitis (n = 715), bronchitis (n = 1,155), URI-NOS (n = 1,475), or mixed diagnoses (>1 ARI diagnosis) (n = 402). Antibiotics were prescribed in 68% of visits: pharyngitis (69%), rhinosinusitis (89%), bronchitis (86%), URI-NOS (37%), and mixed diagnosis (86%). Streptococcal diagnostic testing was performed in 33% of pharyngitis visits; group A Streptococcus was identified in 3% of visits. Streptococcal tests were ordered less frequently for patients who received antibiotics (28%) than those who did not receive antibiotics 44%; P < .01). Although 68% of visits for rhinosinusitis had documentation of symptoms, only 32% met diagnostic criteria for antibiotics. Overall, 39% of patients with uncomplicated ARIs received appropriate antibiotic management. The proportion of 30-day return visits for ARI care was similar for appropriate (11%) or inappropriate (10%) antibiotic management (P = .22).
Antibiotics were prescribed in most uncomplicated ARI visits, indicating substantial overuse. Practice was frequently discordant with guideline diagnostic and treatment recommendations.
Ischemic stroke treatment is time-sensitive, and barriers to providing prehospital care encountered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers have been under-studied.
This study described barriers to providing prehospital care, identified predictors of these barriers, and assessed the impact of these barriers on EMS on-scene time and administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the emergency department (ED).
A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-S; American Heart Association [AHA]; Dallas, Texas USA) registry at two hospitals to identify ischemic stroke patients arriving by EMS. Variables were abstracted from prehospital and hospital medical records and merged with registry data. Barriers to care were grouped into themes. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of barriers to care, and bi-variate tests were used to assess differences in EMS on-scene time and the proportion of patients receiving tPA between patients with and without barriers.
Barriers to providing prehospital care were documented for 15.5% of patients: 29.6% related to access, 26.7% communication, 23.0% extrication and transportation, 20.0% refusal, and 14.1% assessment/management. Non-white and non-black race (OR: 3.69; 95% CI, 1.63-8.36) and living alone (OR: 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05-2.23) were associated with greater odds of barriers to providing care. The EMS on-scene time was ≥15 minutes for 70.4% of patients who had a barrier to care, compared with 49.0% of patients who did not (P<.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients who were administered tPA between those with and without barriers to care (14.1% vs 19.2%; P=.159).
Barriers to providing prehospital care were documented for a sizable proportion of ischemic stroke patients, with the majority related to patient access and communication, and occurred more frequently among non-white and non-black patients and those living alone. Although EMS on-scene time was longer for patients with barriers to care, the proportion of patients receiving tPA in the ED did not differ.
LiT, CushmanJT, ShahMN, KellyAG, RichDQ, JonesCMC. Barriers to Providing Prehospital Care to Ischemic Stroke Patients: Predictors and Impact on Care. Prehosp Disaster Med.2018;33(5):501–507.
Objective: Adults are at risk for unemployment following a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Less is known about employment patterns following mild TBI. This study aims to examine patterns of return to pre-injury job in adults following mild TBI over a 12-month post injury period, and to investigate factors associated with return to work. Methods: It is a prospective longitudinal study of 205 adults (aged ≥16 years at injury) identified as part of a larger population-based incidence study in the Waikato, New Zealand. In-person assessments were completed at baseline (within 14 days) and 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-injury. Results: A total of 159 (77.6%) adults returned to their pre-injury job at baseline and 185 (90.2%) returned within 12 months. Of those who did not return to their pre-injury job at baseline (n = 46), younger age at injury (≤30 years, p = .02) and poor overall neurocognitive functioning at 1-month (p = .02) was associated with non-return to pre-injury job at 12 months. Conclusion: In a sample of employed adults, the majority returned to their pre-injury job shortly after injury. Cognitive functioning and younger age at time of injury may be associated with delayed return to work. Interventions to support younger workers may facilitate their return to work.
Objective: To identify the systems available to sub-classify mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to determine their utility in predicting 1-year outcome.
Methods: A systematic review to identify mild-TBI sub-classification systems was conducted until March 2016. The identified systems were applied to a cohort of N = 290 adults who had experienced a mild-TBI, and who had been assessed for post-concussion symptoms 1-year post injury. ANOVAs and regression models were used to determine whether each sub-classification system could distinguish between outcomes and to explore their contribution to explaining variance in post-concussion symptoms 1-year post injury.
Results: Nineteen sub-classification systems for mild-TBI met the inclusion criteria for this review. The Saal (1991) classification system significantly differentiated the experience of post-concussion symptoms in our cohort 1-year post injury (F = 2.39, p = 0.05). However, the findings did not remain significant following correction for multiple comparisons and inclusion of socio-demographic and contextual factors in the regression model.
Conclusions: Current sub-classification systems fail to explain much of the variance in post-concussion symptoms 1 year following mild-TBI. Further research is needed to identify the factors (including socio-demographic and contextual factors) to determine, who may be at risk of developing persistent post-concussion symptoms.