Dominant narratives of the Eastern Mediterranean's 20th century exclude the study of Western humanitarianism and refugee survivors of the 1915 genocide of the Ottoman Armenians. Reasons for this exclusion abound. At the forefront is the abject nature of the human beings who populate that history, something which often induces revulsion on the part of historians in the present: these were people who left little of the appealing and elegant traces left by a Beiruti journalist, a Damascene urban notable, or an elite Constantinopolitan feminist. They appear as an undifferentiated mass of survivors of intense violence, disease, and starvation who are bereft of any agency; slaves, and serially raped and pregnant teenagers in bureaucratic documents stored at the League of Nations archive or packs of feral emaciated street children roving the narrow alleyways of Aleppo's old city in the paternalistic memoirs of Western relief workers—usually American or Scandinavian female healthcare professionals. Their own voices are obscured, showing up in the occasional self-published autobiography written by an elderly genocide survivor for his grandchildren, or in handwritten accounts and letters in lost dialects inherited by descendants unable to read them.