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Intrapulmonary-artery septoplasty may be effective for establishing two-lung Fontan circulation in patients with unilateral pulmonary circulation. However, evaluation of the function of each lung by conventional modalities can be challenging in these patients due to differing sources of blood flow to the left and right lungs following intrapulmonary-artery septation. Herein, we report a case in which two-lung Fontan circulation was successfully achieved after using cardiac MRI along with conventional modalities to evaluate pulmonary circulation.
Magnetic/fluorescent (magnetofluorescent) materials have become one of the most important tools in the imaging modality in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging. We succeeded in fabricating magnetofluorescent nanoparticles (MFNPs) consisting of silicon/magnetite composite nanoparticles. Our unique synthetic approach can control simultaneously the magnetic and fluorescence behaviors by varying the particle size, demonstrating the superparamagnetic behavior and green fluorescence for the MFNPs having mean diameter of 3.0 nm, and the ferromagnetic behavior without fluorescence for the MFNPs having mean diameter more than 5.0 nm. More intriguingly, the MFNPs with superparamagnetism can detect green fluorescence even after the magnetic guidance of MFNPs by the commercial neodymium magnet. Additionally, the MFNPs having two magnetic behaviors also possess good biocompatibility.
To examine the association between the consumption of green tea, coffee and caffeine and depressive symptoms.
Cross-sectional study. Consumption of green tea and coffee was ascertained with a validated dietary questionnaire and the amount of caffeine intake was estimated from these beverages. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to compute odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for depressive symptoms with adjustments for potential confounders.
Two workplaces in north-eastern Kyushu, Japan, in 2009.
A total of 537 men and women aged 20–68 years.
Higher green tea consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 cup/d, those consuming ≥4 cups green tea/d had a 51 % significantly lower prevalence odds of having depressive symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders, with significant trend association (P for trend = 0·01). Further adjustment for serum folate slightly attenuated the association. Coffee consumption was also inversely associated with depressive symptoms (≥2 cups/d v. <1 cup/d: OR = 0·61; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·98). Multiple-adjusted odds for depressive symptoms comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption was OR = 0·57 (95 % CI 0·30, 1·05; P for trend = 0·02).
Results suggest that higher consumption of green tea, coffee and caffeine may confer protection against depression.
By using homogeneous electron-beam (EB) irradiation, rapid adhesion between nylon-6 film and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was successfully developed. Effects of homogeneous irradiation of electron beam with low potential (HIEBL) on adhesive strength of different polymers without glue were investigated. HIEBL less than 0.216MJ kg−1 (MGy) increased the adhesive strength and its strain of composites constructed with nylon-6 film and PMMA, although additional HIEBL at more than 0.432 MGy apparently decreased the adhesive strain. HIEBL less than 0.432 MGy also enhanced the elasticity (dσ/dε)o of composites. To evaluate the influence of HIEBL on the adhesive strength, electron spin resonance signals that relate to dangling bonds were observed. Because EB irradiation generated dangling bonds in polymethyl methacrylate and nylon-6, dangling bonds probably acted reactive and bonding sites to each polymer at interface. Therefore, HIEBL enhanced the adhesive strength as well as elasticity of the composites.
Cytotoxicity of human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) labeled with the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) particles before and after ultraviolet (UV) light exposure has studied on the viability and cellular membrane damages. The viability and cellular membrane damages of HeLa cells changed at high particle concentration of 1.12 mg/ml. The viability of HeLa cells labeled with the UV-exposed nc-Si particles was higher than that of unexposed nc-Si particles. However, the variation of cellular membrane damages was almost same for the nc-Si particles before and after UV exposure. These results substantiated the low toxicity of nc-Si particles. Moreover, the HeLa cells labeled with the nc-Si particles exhibited green fluorescence. On the other hand, in vivo test of nc-Si particles estimated by the visualization observation of the circulation from the lymphatic vessel to the lymph node of a mouse. The transfer pathway of nc-Si particles could be clearly monitored by the strong emission of red light.
Joining between Nylon-film and Silicone-rubber was successfully developed. Effects of EB-irradiation on joining strength of different polymers without adhesive materials were investigated by using homogeneous EB irradiation. The EB irradiation increased the joining strength of the joining sample between Nylon-film and Silicone-rubber. Excess EB-irradiation more than 0.3 MGy apparently decreased the joining strength. To discuss the influences of electron beam irradiation on the joining strength, ESR signals related to dangling bonds were observed. Since the EB irradiation produced detectable dangling bonds on Nylon-film, using dangling bonds probably joined the different polymers.
We have investigated the stability of luminescence in pure water from a nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) particles passivated with various chemical elements such as a hydrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms. Each sample emitted red light with a peak wavelength in a range from 690 to 800 nm. When the hydrogen- and/or carbon-passivated samples were immersed in pure water, the intensity of red luminescence was decreased by aging after a short period of time. At the same time, the peak wavelength was also shifted toward shorter wavelength. These were caused by the generation of defects (Pb-centers) and the reduction of particle size due to the desorption of hydrogen and/or carbon atoms and the replacement from the Si-H and/or Si-C bonds to the Si-O bond, respectively, at the surface of nc-Si particles. On the other hand, the oxygen-passivated sample showed stable luminescence in addition to the slight blue-shift of peak wavelength under the immersion in pure water for 400 hours. The good stability was attributed to the formation of stable surface condition. These results are a strong indication that the stability of the luminescence in pure water can be remarkably improved by the oxygen-passivation to the surface of nc-Si particles.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was deposited uniformly on an irregular structure such as a polyurethane artificial heart blood pump using a special 3-dimensional type electrode. Process of applying the DLC film coating is accomplished by inserting a large number of small metallic balls (φ0.8 mm chromium balls). It is then possible to adjust the shape of the electrode in such a way that the DLC film coating can be applied to the irregular surface of the artificial heart. In investigating the availability of the electrode, under helium (He) plasma, the plasma states were measured using double probe analysis. Lateral profiles of the electron temperature were higher in the centre and decreased towards the edges of the electrode. On the other hand, the plasma density profiles were lower in the centre part than at the edges. The electrode kept ion sheath on the artificial heart blood pump's surface at self-bias voltage uniformly. The results were that the DLC film was deposited completely on the artificial heart blood pump at the film thickness of approximately 350 - 380 nm. Additionally the film structure was uniform.
We have studied the biological properties of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) particles after injection at various places in a mouse. The nc-Si particles with a size of 2.5 nm and a concentration of 1.3 mg/ml were dispersed in a normal saline solution (NSS). The NSS dispersible nc-Si particles were safely injected into the mouse. When the nc-Si particles in the NSS were directly injected into the subcutaneous vein and the coronary artery of the heart by syringe, the condition of bloodstream at each place was confirmed by the red luminescence (peak wavelength at 720 nm) from the nc-Si particles under the ultraviolet (UV) light-irradiation. Moreover, the nc-Si particles in the NSS, which were injected into the vein in the sole, smoothly flowed to the small intestine, and the smooth fluidity of nc-Si particles was also observed for the condition of the peristalsis of the small intestine. The nc-Si particles in the small intestine emitted red light during peristalsis under the UV light-irradiation. The red luminescence at each place was very bright and could be clearly seen with the naked eye. These phenomenons were achieved by the utilization of the harmless material, the formation of nc-Si particles with the single-order-size and the realization of the stable surface modification to the nc-Si particles.
Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate and lead zirconate titanate epitaxial films with (100) and (111) orientations are grown respectively on (100) and (111) niobium, lending conductivity to strontium titanate through chemical solution deposition. This study investigates changes in the ordinary and extraordinary refractive index no and ne induced by the electric field in these films using the prism-coupling method. Anisotropic electrooptic effects arise from Pockels effect and switching among polar clusters. Isotropic electrooptic effect is realized on PLZT 8/65/35 and PZT 70/30 of (100) epitaxial films.
We have investigated correlation between luminescence property and particle size of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) fabricated by controlling Si concentration in an amorphous SiOx (a-SiOx) films. The Si concentration in the a-SiOx film was increased with increasing a RF power and lowering a gas pressure. The increase of Si concentration led to expansion of the particle size of nc-Si. The particle size of nc-Si was varied from 1.8 nm up to 3.5 nm for the sample introduced the Si concentration from 0.7 % up to 9 %. The luminescent color from nc-Si grains, which differs in size, showed a red/green/blue lights.
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