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The risk of endocarditis varies with CHD complexity and the presence of prosthetic valves. The purpose of the study was therefore to describe incidence and outcomes of prosthetic valve endocarditis in adults with repair tetralogy of Fallot.
Retrospective review of adult tetralogy of Fallot patients who underwent prosthetic valve implantation, 1990–2017. We defined prosthetic valve endocarditis-related complications as prosthetic valve dysfunction, perivalvular extension of infection such abscess/aneurysm/fistula, heart block, pulmonary/systemic embolic events, recurrent endocarditis, and death due to sepsis.
A total of 338 patients (age: 37 ± 15 years) received 352 prosthetic valves (pulmonary [n = 308, 88%], tricuspid [n = 13, 4%], mitral [n = 9, 3%], and aortic position [n = 22, 6%]). The annual incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis was 0.4%. There were 12 prosthetic valve endocarditis-related complications in six patients, and these complications were prosthetic valve dysfunction (n = 4), systemic/pulmonary embolic events (n = 2), heart block (n = 1), aortic root abscess (n = 1), recurrent endocarditis (n = 2), and death due to sepsis (n = 1). Three (50%) patients required surgery at 2 days, 6 weeks, and 23 weeks from the time of prosthetic valve endocarditis diagnosis. Altogether three of the six (50%) patients died, and one of these deaths was due to sepsis.
The incidence, complication rate, and outcomes of prosthetic valve endocarditis in tetralogy of Fallot patients underscore some of the risks of having a prosthetic valve. It is important to educate the patients on the need for early presentation if they develop systemic symptoms, have a high index of suspicion for prosthetic valve endocarditis, and adopt a multi-disciplinary care approach in this high-risk population.
There are limited outcome data in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. The purpose of this study was to describe re-operations and all-cause mortality in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia.
Retrospective review of adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia who received care at the Mayo Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic, 1990–2016. All-cause mortality was calculated as events per 100 patient-years from the time of first presentation to the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic.
Of the 221 patients, the age at initial tetralogy of Fallot repair was 6 (5–13) years, and the age at first presentation to the clinic was 27 – 8 years. All patients had at least one right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit re-operation. There were 31 deaths (14%) at mean age of 41 – 14 years. The causes of death were end-stage heart failure (n = 17), sudden cardiac death (n=9), post-operative death after cardiac surgery (n = 2), sepsis with multi-system organ failure (n = 2), and unknown (n = 1). All-cause mortality rate was 1.7 per 100 patient-years. The risk factors for all-cause mortality were older age (>12 years) at the time of repair (hazard ratio 1.41, 95 confidence interval 1.06–2.02, p = 0.033), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (hazard ratio 1.36, 95 confidence interval 1.17–2.47, p = 0.015), and left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (hazard ratio 1.39, 95 confidence interval 1.08–2.31, p = 0.031).
Based on a review of 221 adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, all patients had re-operations and all-cause mortality rate was 1.7 events per 100 patient-years. The current study provides important outcomes data for risk stratification in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia.
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