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To investigate iodine status and fish consumption of schoolchildren living in the Red Sea and White Nile regions of Sudan.
Cross-sectional study to determine urinary iodine concentration, visible goitre rate, iodine content of salt and fish consumption.
Port Sudan (Red Sea) and Jabal Awliya (White Nile), Sudan.
Two hundred eighty (n 280) children aged 6–12 years (142 boys, 138 girls).
The median urinary iodine concentration in children from Port Sudan and Jabal Awliya was 553 and 160 μg/l, respectively. Goitre was detected in 17·1 % of children from Port Sudan but only in 1·4 % from Jabal Awliya, The salt samples from Port Sudan contained 150–360 mg iodine (KOI3)/kg salt, whereas those from Jabal Awliya had levels below the detection limit. Despite consuming salt devoid of iodine, children from Jabal Awliya had optimal iodine status. It is plausible that consumption of Nile fish from Jabal Awliya Reservoir, which is a good source of iodine and favoured by the locals, might have provided sufficient iodine. In contrast, children from Port Sudan were at higher risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism resulting from consumption of excessively iodised salt.
The findings of the study clearly demonstrated that (i) Sudan still has a problem with iodine nutrition and quality control and monitoring of salt iodisation and (ii) including fish in the diet could provide a sufficient amount of iodine for schoolchildren.
In 1976, the Royal College of Physicians and the British Cardiac Society recommended eating less fatty red meat and more poultry instead because it was lean. However, the situation has changed since that time, with a striking increase in fat content of the standard broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to report a snapshot of data on fat in chickens now sold to the public.
Samples were obtained randomly between 2004 and 2008 from UK supermarkets, farm shops and a football club. The amount of chicken fat was estimated by emulsification and chloroform/methanol extraction.
Food sold in supermarkets and farms in England.
The fat energy exceeded that of protein. There has been a loss of n-3 fatty acids. The n-6:n-3 ratio was found to be as high as 9:1, as opposed to the recommendation of about 2:1. Moreover, the TAG level in the meat and whole bird mostly exceeded the proportion of phospholipids, which should be the higher for muscle function. The n-3 fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22 : 5n-3) was in excess of DHA (22 : 6n-3). Previous analyses had, as usual for birds, more DHA than DPA.
Traditional poultry and eggs were one of the few land-based sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, which is synthesized from its parent precursor in the green food chain. In view of the obesity epidemic, chickens that provide several times the fat energy compared with protein seem illogical. This type of chicken husbandry needs to be reviewed with regard to its implications for animal welfare and human nutrition.
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