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Heterogeneous magnesium matrix nanocomposites (Hetero-Mg-NCs) exhibited excellent strength–toughness synergy, but their damage behavior and toughness mechanism lacked of investigation. Here, atomic force microscopy was first employed to characterize the microstructure evolution and damage behavior of the Hetero-Mg-NCs after indentation. The heterogeneous structure comprised of pure Mg areas (soft phase) and Mg nanocomposite areas (hard phase) was revealed by the electrostatic force microscopy. Furthermore, the surface morphology and cracks of the deformed area were investigated with high resolution. The results indicated the soft phase undertook most of the deformation and played an important role in capturing and blunting the crack.
Human milk fat is specially tailored to supply the developing infant with adequate and balanced nutrients. The present study aimed to quantify the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and carotenoids in human milk, with special emphasis on the lactational changes. Colostrum, transitional and mature milk samples were collected longitudinally from the same forty-two healthy, well-nourished Chinese mothers. Fatty acids were quantified by GC with carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) and tocopherols (α-, γ-tocopherol) determined by HPLC. Total fatty acid (TFA) content increased from 15·09 g/l in colostrum to 32·57 g/l in mature milk with the percentages of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) decreased. The ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA and ARA:DHA remained constant during lactation at about 11:1 and 1·3:1, respectively. Both α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol decreased over lactation with the ratio of α-:γ-tocopherol declined significantly from 7·21:1 to 4·21:1 (P < 0·001). Carotenoids all dropped from colostrum to mature milk as the less polar carotenes dropped by 88·67 %, while xanthophylls only dropped by 35·92 %. Lutein was predominated in both transitional and mature milk carotenoids (51·64–52·49 %), while colostrum carotenoids were mainly composed of lycopene (32·83 %) and β-carotene (30·78 %). The concentrations of tocopherols and xanthophylls but not carotenes were positively associated with TFA content in milk. These results suggested that colostrum and mature milk contained divergent lipid profiles and selective transfer mechanisms related to polarity might be involved. The present outcomes provide new insights for future breast-feeding studies, which also add in scientific evidences for the design of both initial and follow-on infant formulas.
In this work, flavonoids in Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. were extracted by ultrasound-assisted methodology and determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. After that, extraction conditions were optimized by the single fact investigation, the central composite design, and response surface methodology (RSM) in turn. The results showed the optimal values of ethanol concentration, solid–liquid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, ultrasonic power, and number of extraction times were 60%, 1:20 (g/mL), 45 °C, 34 min; 80 W, and 5, respectively. The extraction ratio of flavonoids could be as high as 94.50%. The influence order of each factor was ultrasonic power > extraction time > extraction temperature > ethanol concentration. The results also showed that the experimental value was close to the predicted value (94.49%) of the established model by RSM, which proved that the established model was reasonable. The thermodynamic results showed that the extraction process was endothermic and could proceed spontaneously.
To revise an abbreviated version of the Silhouettes subtest of the Visual Object and Space Perception (VOSP) battery in order to recognize mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and determine the optimal cutoffs to differentiate among cognitively normal controls (NC), MCI, and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the Chinese elderly.
A cross-sectional validation study.
Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.
A total of 591 participants: Individuals with MCI (n = 211), AD (n = 139) and NC (n = 241) were recruited from the Memory Clinic, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.
Baseline neuropsychological battery (including VOSP) scores were collected from firsthand data. An abbreviated version of silhouettes test (Silhouettes-A) was revised from the original English version more suitable for the elderly, including eight silhouettes of animals and seven silhouettes of inanimate objects, with a score ranging from 0 to 15.
Silhouettes-A was an effective test to screen MCI in the Chinese elderly with good sensitivity and specificity, similar to the Montreal cognitive assessment and superior to other single tests reflecting language, spatial, or executive function. However, it had no advantage in distinguishing MCI from AD. The corresponding optimal cutoff scores of Silhouettes-A were 10 for screening MCI and 8 for AD.
Silhouettes-A is a quick, simple, sensitive, and dependable cognitive test to distinguish among NC, MCI, and AD patients.
Due to a growing concern with the English language competence of international airline pilots, a growing body of research has been conducted on issues related to the International Aviation English Test, which pilots need to pass in order to fly on international routes (e.g. Jones, 2003; Ragan, 1997; Seiler, 2009). This paper contributes to this research by reporting on a mixed method inquiry into Chinese pilots’ engagement with learning English for aviation. The study involved a survey of 165 pilots working for a major Chinese cargo airline, and follow-up interviews with two of the surveyed participants (one senior and one junior) to explore their International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) test preparation and learning engagement. The findings of the study indicate that policy-makers and relevant English language education specialists need to develop tailor made courses that will better help these pilots to improve their command of English and thus ensure aviation safety.
The effects of high-Z dopant on the laser-driven ablative Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) are investigated by theoretical analysis and radiation hydrodynamics simulations. It is found that the oscillation amplitude of ablative RMI depends on the ablation velocity, the blow-off plasma velocity and the post-shock sound speed. Owing to enhancing the radiation at the plasma corona and increasing the radiation temperature at the ablation front, the high-Z dopant in plastic target can significantly increase the ablation velocity and the blow-off plasma velocity, leading to an increase in oscillation frequency and a reduction in oscillation amplitude of the ablative RMI. The high-Z dopant in plastic target is beneficial to reduce the seed of ablative Rayleigh–Taylor instability. These results are helpful for the design of direct drive inertial confinement fusion capsules.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0·353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0·432 and 0·459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of β-casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes.
We present an experimental study of turbulent thermal convection with smooth and rough surface plates in various combinations. A total of five cells were used in the experiments. Both the global
for each plate (or the associated boundary layer) are measured. The results reveal that the smooth plates are insensitive to the surface (rough or smooth) and boundary conditions (i.e. nominally constant temperature or constant flux) of the other plate of the same cell. The heat transport properties of the rough plates, on the other hand, depend not only on the nature of the plate at the opposite side of the cell, but also on the boundary condition of that plate. It thus appears that, at the present level of experimental resolution, the smooth plate can influence the rough plate, but cannot be influenced by either the rough or the smooth plates. It is further found that the scaling of
for all of the smooth plates is consistent with the classical
exponent. But the scaling exponent for the global
for the cell with both plates being smooth is definitely less than
(this result itself is consistent with all previous studies at comparable parameter range). The discrepancy between the
behaviour at the whole-cell and individual-plate levels is not understood and deserves further investigation.
Fast linear transformer driver (FLTD) has some advantages in repetitive operation compared with traditional pulsed power generators. However, different types of gas switches applied in the field of pulsed power technology in recent years cannot reach the requirements of repetitive operation of FLTD. Therefore, the capability of repetitive operation of a multigap gas switch has been investigated in a circuit similar to the basic discharge loop named as brick in this paper. The switch has been triggered more than 2000 times and the distribution of delay time and switch jitter are analyzed and reported. Also, the self-breakdown voltages of the switch during different segments of the triggered breakdown experiment have been tested. The experimental results indicate that the delay time obeys the Gauss distribution and the jitter of 2000 times of discharge is about 2.3 ns.
The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between age and risk for depression among the old and the oldest old.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database were used to identify potential studies. The studies were divided into cross-sectional and longitudinal subsets. For each study, the numbers of the total participants, cases (for cross-sectional study), or incident cases (for longitudinal study) of depression in each age group were extracted and entered into Review Manager 4.2 software. Qualitative meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies and of longitudinal studies were performed. For prevalence and incidence rates of depression, odds risk (OR) and relative risk (RR) were calculated, respectively.
The qualitative meta-analyses showed that, compared with younger participants (above vs. below 65 years, above vs. below 70 years, above vs. below 75 years, and above vs. below 80 years), older age groups had a significantly higher risk for depression. (All of the ORs and RRs were significant.) Compared with participants aged 55–89, those aged above 90 years had no higher risk for depression. (Neither the OR nor the RR was significant.)
Despite the methodological limitations of this meta-analysis, older age appears to be an important risk factor for depression in the general elderly population (aged below 80 years), but not in the oldest population (aged above 85 years).
In this paper, the influence of the electron flux limiter fe on hohlraum plasmas is studied by using the two-dimensional code LARED-H, and a method to experimentally determine fe via the motion of the M-band emission region in Au hohlraum is proposed. From our simulations, the limited free streaming flux may dominates the heat conduction in the regions with steep temperature gradient, including the laser deposition region, the flux-heated overcritical region, and the laser channel boundary between the hot laser plasmas and the surrounding radiation ablated plasmas, while these are important X-ray emission regions. Hence, the choosing of fe may influence the wall plasma expansion and the laser spot motion, and further influence the motion of the emission regions. From our study, the motion of the M-band (>1.5 keV) emission region is sensitive to fe when the limited free streaming flux dominates the heat conduction of the wall plasma expansion region, and so it is possible to determine fe via the motion of the M-band emission region. In this work, the model used in our simulations is taken from the wall and laser spot motion experiments done by Huser et al. (2009).
An initial study and design on ignition elliptical hohlraum (ellipraum) is given by using the expended plasma-filling model with criterions. As a result, in an ellipraum with a smaller ratio of major-to-minor axis (a/b), the radius ratio of ellipraum-to-capsule (b/RC) should be larger (hence more sphere-like) to meet the criterions of plasma-filling and laser deposition, meanwhile the required laser energy and peak power are lower and the coupling between different modes is weaker. To produce a 300 eV radiation pulse to ignite a capsule of 1 mm radius, an ellipraum of a/b = 1.6 and b/Rc = 2.8 is superior to a cylinraum with a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.81 and a cylinraum-to-capsule radius ratio of 2.54 in saving more than 10% laser energy and reducing 50% coupling between different modes.
Vanadium-beard bone coal is one of important vanadium resources in China. to extract vanadium tailings from Stone coal is prduced after extracted vanadium from stone coal through the roasting, leaching and other processes. About 120-150 tons of tailings will be produced in extracting 1 ton of vanadium pentoxide. A lot of tailings that are willfully piled up have caused serious environmental pollution and wasting of resources; it is therefore necessary to realize its resource utilization. This study increases the activity of vanadium tailings by means of alkali fusion, and then uses different alkali activators to react with vanadium tailings so that geopolymer with high value added is produced. Sample of geopolymer is acquired from mixture containing vanadium tailings, alkali activators, water and a little sodium aluminate through compression-molding process under 20MPa pressure. After cured in room temperature for three days, the maximum compressive strength of the sample can reach 36.2MPa. XRD analysis indicates: quartz, the major crystal phase in vanadium tailings is decomposed and the activity of vanadium tailings is heightened. FTIR and SEM analyses show: structural change having important impact on the mechanical strength of geopolymer occurred during the process of vanadium tailings generating geopolymer.
This paper is concerned with a stabilized finite element method based on two local Gauss integrations for the two-dimensional non-stationary conduction-convection equations by using the lowest equal-order pairs of finite elements. This method only offsets the discrete pressure space by the residual of the simple and symmetry term at element level in order to circumvent the inf-sup condition. The stability of the discrete scheme is derived under some regularity assumptions. Optimal error estimates are obtained by applying the standard Galerkin techniques. Finally, the numerical illustrations agree completely with the theoretical expectations.
Pollen evidence from sediment cores at Hurleg and Toson lakes in the Qaidam Basin was obtained to examine vegetation and climatic change in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The chronologies were controlled by 210Pb and 137Cs analysis and AMS 14C dating. Pollen assemblages from both lakes are dominated by Chenopodiaceae (∼ 40%), Artemisia (∼ 30–35%) and Poaceae (∼ 20–25%), with continued occurrence but low abundance of Nitraria, Ephedra, and Cyperaceae. Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) pollen ratios from two lakes show coherent large oscillations at centennial timescale during the last 1000 yr. A/C ratios were high around AD 1170, 1270, 1450, 1700 and 1920, suggesting that the vegetation was more “steppe-like” under a relatively moist climate than that during the intervening periods. Wet-dry climate shifts at the two lakes (2800 m asl) are in opposite phases to precipitation changes derived from tree-ring records in the surrounding mountains (> 3700 m asl) and to pollen and snow accumulation records from Dunde ice core (5300 m asl), showing that a dry climate in the basin corresponds with a wet interval in the mountains, especially around AD 1600. This contrasting pattern implies that topography might have played an important role in mediating moisture changes at regional scale in this topographically complex region.
In this paper we focus on the problem of the degree sequence for a random graph process with edge deletion. We prove that, while a specific parameter varies, the limit degree distribution of the model exhibits critical phenomenon.
Coral microatolls have been long used as precise indicators of past sea level, but their use for precise definition of detailed sea-level fluctuations is still rare. Here we report twelve high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometric 230Th ages for twelve rims of five mid-Holocene microatolls from an emerged reef terrace at Leizhou Peninsula, northern South China Sea. This is a tectonically stable area, enabling us to reconstruct both the timing and trajectory of local sea-level fluctuations accurately. The elevations of these microatoll rims and cores were accurately determined relative to the surface of modern living microatolls at the same site. The results indicate that the sea level during the period of 7050–6600 yr bp (years before AD 1950) was about 171 to 219 cm above the present, with at least four cycles of fluctuations. Over this 450 yr interval, sea level fluctuated by 20–40 cm on century scales.
We present an efficient polymer-small molecule triple-tandem organic solar cell (OSC), consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) bulk heterojunction as the first and second cells, and small molecules copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and fullerene (C60) as the third cell on top. These sub-cells are connected by an intermediate layer of Al(1 nm)/MoO3(15 nm), which appears to be highly transparent, structurally smooth, and electrically functional. Compared to our previous all polymer triple-tandem organic solar cells (2.03%), this polymer-small molecule triple-tandem organic solar cell achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 2.18% with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) = 3.02 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) = 1.51 V, and fill factor (FF) = 47.7% under simulated solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 (AM1.5G), which can be attributed to the increased photocurrent generation in the third cell since the third cell has the complementary absorption with two bottom cells despite a slightly reduced Voc.