To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In January 2016, static GPS measurements were carried out in a 30 × 30 km2 area centered around Kunlun station at Dome Argus (Dome A), East Antarctica, to acquire high-precision 3-D geodetic coordinates at 49 sites. By comparing the coordinates with previous GPS measurements in 2008 and 2013 at the same sites, we constructed a detailed and long-term record of the ice-surface velocity field, 2008–2016, around Dome A. During this time span, the estimated ice-surface velocity ranges from 0.8 ± 0.3 to 28.7 ± 1.6 cm a−1, with a mean of 10.4 ± 0.3 cm a−1. From 2013 to 2016, the surface elevation of most Dome A areas exhibits a rising trend, and the maximum increase of snow surface elevation is 84.8 cm. The mean snow surface elevation change rate at Dome A is estimated to be 6.6 ± 0.7 cm a−1. The difference of 1.0 cm a−1 between the snow surface change rate derived from GPS and pole-height change rate from surface mass balance is suspected to be a result of a combination of firn densification and basal melt under Dome A.
Health care workers performing rescue tasks in large-scale disaster areas are usually challenged in terms of physical and mental endurance, which can affect their lifestyles. Nevertheless, data on whether health care workers tend to adopt healthy lifestyles after disasters are limited. This paper compares the adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors among health care workers with that among non–health care workers in a postdisaster area.
This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in August 2016. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II questionnaire was used to interview 261 health care workers and 848 non–health care workers.
Results of the multivariable linear models showed that health care workers had lower physical activity levels (ß=−1.363, P<.0001), worse stress management (ß=−1.282, P<.0001), slower spiritual growth (ß=−1.228, P=.002), and poorer interpersonal relationships (ß=−0.814, P=.019) than non–health care workers. However, no significant differences were found in either nutrition (ß=−0.362, P=.319) or health responsibility (ß=−0.421, P=.283).
Health care workers had less healthy lifestyle behaviors, including physical activity, stress management, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relationships. Further studies are needed to develop health-improving interventions for health care workers in postdisaster areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:230–235)
Using repeat GPS measurements during 2005–16, we calculated and updated two-dimensional high-resolution decadal ice surface velocity estimates along the traverse route from Zhongshan Station to and around Dome Argus, East Antarctica. Along the 71 sites of the transect, the magnitudes of ice velocity increased from near 0 in Dome Argus to 1, 10 and ~100 m a−1 at the sites DT416, DT333 and LT980, respectively. The comparison between GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) derived results agree well when the magnitude of the ice surface velocities is faster than 5 m a−1, and disagree for slower flow velocities. A scale value 1.15 and 0.12 can be applied to InSAR derived results over this region with ice surface velocity larger and <5 m a−1, respectively. We attributed the cause of the discrepancy to the insensitivity of InSAR to the magnitude of low ice surface velocities, thus confirming the importance of GPS fieldwork-based ground truth high-resolution ice velocity estimates to constrain ice-sheet dynamics.
Shot-peened CM400 maraging steel was used to study the mechanism of enhanced notch fatigue properties of ultra-high strength materials. After shot peening, the specimen surface became rougher, but the transversal machining traces were reduced. The yield strength was slightly improved while the ultimate tensile strength and hardness maintained constant; as a result, the fatigue limit was promoted by about 1.5 times. The nucleated sites of the fatigue fracture were partly changed from the surface to subsurface/interior of the specimen. To further analyze the influencing factors of fatigue properties, the fatigue damage process may be resolved to two aspects: (a) fatigue damage rate affected by shear deformation and (b) fatigue damage tolerance controlled by the dilatation fracture process. Considering the stress state near the notch tip, the hydrostatic stress and maximum shear stress are considered for better understanding these two aspects. It is observed that the fatigue damage tolerance increased while the fatigue damage rate decreased after shot peening. Therefore, the notch fatigue properties of CM400 maraging steels can effectively be improved.
Activated carbon (AC) has been widely used as catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Here we demonstrate a new method to improve the AC air-cathode by blending it with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). rGO sheets are first deposited on Ni foam and AC is then brushed onto it with controlled mass loading. rGO sheets not only improve the electrical conductivity of AC, but also provide a large number of ORR areas. Rotating ring disk electrode measurements reveal that the number of transferred electrons at rGO-AC cathode is 3.5, indicating the four-electron pathway is the dominant process. Significantly, the MFC with rGO-AC cathode delivers a maximum power density of 2.25 ± 0.05 W/m2, which is substantially higher than that of plain AC cathode (1.35 ± 0.07 W/m2) and those for other air-cathode MFCs using AC as ORR catalyst under the same mass loading.
The effects of high-Z dopant on the laser-driven ablative Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) are investigated by theoretical analysis and radiation hydrodynamics simulations. It is found that the oscillation amplitude of ablative RMI depends on the ablation velocity, the blow-off plasma velocity and the post-shock sound speed. Owing to enhancing the radiation at the plasma corona and increasing the radiation temperature at the ablation front, the high-Z dopant in plastic target can significantly increase the ablation velocity and the blow-off plasma velocity, leading to an increase in oscillation frequency and a reduction in oscillation amplitude of the ablative RMI. The high-Z dopant in plastic target is beneficial to reduce the seed of ablative Rayleigh–Taylor instability. These results are helpful for the design of direct drive inertial confinement fusion capsules.
The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0·353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0·432 and 0·459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of β-casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
Recent studies suggest the transfer of privileged information via social ties but do not explicitly examine the cost of these ties to shareholders. We document a significant positive relation between stock transaction costs and a company’s social ties to the investment community. Social ties based on education and leisure activities, stronger ties, and ties to individuals responsible for trading have greater effects. Using investment connection deaths as natural experiments, we document that exogenous severance of ties reduces trading costs and trading activities by connected parties. Our evidence illustrates an important and previously undocumented consequence of social ties.
Direct coagulation casting of alumina via controlled release of high valence counter ions using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) chelate complex as the coagulating agent was proposed. APP chelate complex suspension was prepared from APP and calcium chloride. Calcium used as high valence counter ions was chelated by APP. The average particle size of the chelate complex is 0.13 μm with a narrow particle size distribution which is close to the size of alumina particles. Glycerol diacetate was used to tailor the pH value of the suspension by hydrolysis which produces acetic acid. The lowering of the pH value helps to decompose the chelate complex, and enhance to release the calcium chelated. It is indicated that the viscosity of the suspensions with the addition of APP chelate complex suspension and glycerol diacetate increases to approximately 20 Pa s after heating at 40–70 °C for 1.5–5 h, which is high enough to coagulate the suspension. 55 vol% alumina suspension with a addition of 3 vol% APP chelate complex suspension and 5 vol% glycerol diacetate treated at 60 °C could coagulate completely within 2 h with a compressive strength of 2.1 MPa. Dense alumina with a relative density of above 97% and a flexural strength of 388 ± 23 MPa can be prepared by this method from 55 vol% alumina suspensions without a burnout process.
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a major polyphenolic compound found in olive oil with reported anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the neuroprotective effect of HT on type 2 diabetes remains unknown. In the present study, db/db mice and SH-SY-5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of HT. After 8 weeks of HT administration at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg, expression levels of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I/II/IV and the activity of complex I were significantly elevated in the brain of db/db mice. Likewise, targets of the antioxidative transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 including p62 (sequestosome-1), haeme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and superoxide dismutases 1 and 2 increased, and protein oxidation significantly decreased. HT treatment was also found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 and PPARγ coactivator-1α, which constitute an energy-sensing protein network known to regulate mitochondrial function and oxidative stress responses. Meanwhile, neuronal survival indicated by neuron marker expression levels including activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and nerve growth factor was significantly improved by HT administration. Additionally, in a high glucose-induced neuronal cell damage model, HT effectively increased mitochondrial complex IV and HO-1 expression through activating AMPK pathway, followed by the prevention of high glucose-induced production of reactive oxygen species and declines of cell viability and VO2 capacity. Our observations suggest that HT improves mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress potentially through activation of the AMPK pathway in the brain of db/db mice.
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used for screening mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the Beijing version (MoCA-BJ) is widely used in China. We aimed to develop a computerized tool for MoCA-BJ (MoCA-CC).
MoCA-CC used person-machine interaction instead of patient-to-physician interaction; other aspects such as the scoring system did not differ from the original test. MoCA-CC, MoCA-BJ and routine neuropsychological tests were administered to 181 elderly participants (MCI = 96, normal controls [NC] = 85).
A total of 176 (97.24%) participants were evaluated successfully by MoCA-CC. Cronbach's α for MoCA-CC was 0.72. The test–retest reliability (retesting after six weeks) was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82; P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in total scores (t = 9.38, P < 0.001) and individual item scores (t = 2.18–8.62, P < 0.05) between the NC and MCI groups, except for the score for “Naming” (t = 0.24, P = 0.81). The MoCA-CC total scores were highly correlated with the MoCA-BJ total scores (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) in the MCI participants. The area under receiver–operator curve for the prediction of MCI was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.00). At the optimal cut-off score of 25/26, MoCA-CC demonstrated 95.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity.
The MoCA-CC tool developed here has several advantages over the paper-pencil method and is reliable for screening MCI in elderly Chinese individuals, especially in the primary clinical setting. It needs to be validated in other diverse and larger populations.
Compression loading on CrN/Cu/Si(100) micropillars containing 45°-inclined interfaces yielded unequivocal evidence of shear plastic flow within Cu thin films confined between non-deforming Si and CrN. Confined shear plastic flow occurred over Cu thicknesses between ~100 and 1200 nm, with a monotonically increasing flow stress as the thickness decreases. The demonstration of a significant dependence of the shear flow stress on the confined Cu film thickness offers a new example of scale-dependent plasticity, and a new experimental test case for non-local plasticity theories.
Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, with its profound environmental and climatic changes from before the last glacial maximum (LGM) to the last deglaciation, is an ideal period for understanding the evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and Indian summer monsoon (ISM), two Asian monsoon sub-systems. With 875 stable oxygen isotope ratios and 43 230Th dates from stalagmites in Sanxing Cave, southwestern China, we construct and interpret a new, replicated, Asian summer monsoon (ASM) record covering 30.9–9.7 ka with decadal resolution. δ18O records from this site and other reported Chinese caves display similar long-term orbitally dominated trends and synchronous millennial-scale strong and weak monsoonal events associated with climate changes in high northern latitudes. Interestingly, Sanxing δ18O and Arabian Sea records show a weakening ISM from 22 to 17 ka, while the Hulu and Qingtian records from East and Central China express a 3-ka intensifying EASM from 20 to 17 ka. This decoupling between EASM and ISM may be due to different sensitivities of the two ASM sub-systems in response to internal feedback mechanisms associated with the complex geographical or land-ocean configurations.
We describe a new protocol for testing coating/substrate interfacial failures through compression loading of micro-pillars containing an inclined interface region, experimentally realized in the TiN/Ti/Si(100) system. Interfacial failures were achieved through direct compression loading in the axial direction, which yielded reproducible failure stresses which exhibited little dependence on the pillar diameter. The testing protocol lends itself to high-resolution analysis of failure surfaces, and is conducive to correlating interfacial structure and chemistry with mechanical failures within the coating/substrate interfacial region.
In this paper, we document that an application of a moving average timing strategy of technical analysis to portfolios sorted by volatility generates investment timing portfolios that substantially outperform the buy-and-hold strategy. For high-volatility portfolios, the abnormal returns, relative to the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the Fama-French 3-factor models, are of great economic significance, and are greater than those from the well-known momentum strategy. Moreover, they cannot be explained by market timing ability, investor sentiment, default, and liquidity risks. Similar results also hold if the portfolios are sorted based on other proxies of information uncertainty.
Fast linear transformer driver (FLTD) has some advantages in repetitive operation compared with traditional pulsed power generators. However, different types of gas switches applied in the field of pulsed power technology in recent years cannot reach the requirements of repetitive operation of FLTD. Therefore, the capability of repetitive operation of a multigap gas switch has been investigated in a circuit similar to the basic discharge loop named as brick in this paper. The switch has been triggered more than 2000 times and the distribution of delay time and switch jitter are analyzed and reported. Also, the self-breakdown voltages of the switch during different segments of the triggered breakdown experiment have been tested. The experimental results indicate that the delay time obeys the Gauss distribution and the jitter of 2000 times of discharge is about 2.3 ns.
Red mud is a solid waste residue from the caustic soda leaching of bauxite ores to produce alumina by the Bayer process. Red mud contains large quantity of alkali and aluminosilicate, so it is potentially available to prepare inorganic polymeric materials by geopolymerisation process. However, the activity or dissolubility of the aluminosilicate phases in red mud is significantly poor, which constraints the geopolymerisation process. Therefore, some pretreatment process for red mud is necessary to improve the adhesive property and dissolubility of Bayer red mud. In this study, mineral phase transformation and dissolubility of a typical red mud sample were studied under different thermal treatment processes. The thermal behavior of the red mud was studied by TG-DTA. The crystalline phases of the samples calcined at 200-1000 °C for different hours were determined by XRD, and the dissolubility was determined by alkaline leaching test. The TG-DTA pattern shows no obvious endothermic or exothermic peaks, and the weight loss increases continuously as the temperature rises, which indicates that the crystalline phases transform continuously as the temperature rises, consistent with the XRD results. As the calcination temperature rises from 200 to 800 °C, several kinds of crystalline phase in original red mud, including gibbsite, katoite, muscovite, natrodavyne disappeared in succession, accompanied with the formation of nepheline, gehlenite, sodium aluminum silicate, and some amorphous aluminosilicate. The calcined products are more likely to dissolve. But when it rises over than 800 °C, the content of gehlenite increases, and the phase of which is stable. As the calcination temperature rises from 200 to 1000 °C, the dissolubility of aluminosilicate in the red mud under high alkaline conditions increases firstly and then decreases after over 800 °C. Therefore, the optimum temperature of thermal treatment for red mud is about 800 °C. This study could contribute to the following preparation of geopolymeric material made from red mud, especially the pretreatment process of red mud.
Contaminated water is one of the main sources of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. Waterborne NoV outbreaks are infrequently attributed to GII.4 NoV. In September 2009, a NoV outbreak affected a small school in Guangdong Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that household use water, supplied by a well, was the probable source (relative risk 1·9). NoV nucleic acid material in concentrated well-water samples was detected using real-time RT–PCR. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from diarrhoea and well-water specimens were identical and had the greatest sequence identity to corresponding sequences from the epidemic strain GII.4-2006b. Our report documents the first laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.4 NoV genotype in China. Our investigations indicate that well water, intended exclusively for household use but not for consumption, caused this outbreak. The results of this report serve as a reminder that private well water intended for household use should be tested for NoV.