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Ionization-induced injection into a laser-driven wakefield is studied using 2½D OSIRIS simulations. A laser propagates into a gas mixture of 99.5% helium and 0.5% nitrogen with gas density of each rising linearly from 0 to a peak, after which these remain constant. Simulations show that the process can be controlled by varying the scale length of an up-ramp, the laser intensity, and the maximum plasma density. The injection process is controlled by the bubble radius decreasing as laser propagates up the density gradient and laser self-focusing in the flat-top region. A beam with a central energy of 350 MeV and an energy spread (FWHM) of 1.62% was obtained for an up-ramp length of 135 μm, a normalized vector potential of 2, and a density of 7 × 1018cm−3 (assuming a 0.8 μm wavelength laser).
After the Genoa Summit of 2001 in Italy, when one protestor was killed while demonstrating, “retreat method” summits became predominant. The Windsor Hotel, located on a mountain next to Lake Toya in Hokkaido, Japan was selected to host the G8 summit in 2008.
The G8 Hokkaido-Lake Toya Summit was held 07–09 July 2008. Emergency medical services and systems were constructed. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare developed a plan for emergency medical services and preparedness in response to potential nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attacks.
The Windsor Hotel is located 75 kilometers from Sapporo, where there are four Level-1 treatment areas in four hospitals. In the Windsor Hotel, O-type (Rh -) blood was prepared for foreign guests. Four helicopters were on standby near the Windsor Hotel for emergency transportation. One Mobile Intensive Care Unit car was located near the foothill for the provision of emergency treatment. The expert medical team of the Windsor Hotel was present in the hotel's medical office. More than 200 doctors with disaster and emergency expertise were commissioned to the summit. During the summit, 68 patients were treated, including one patient who was transferred to Sapporo by helicopter.
An emergency medical system was established for the G8 Hokkaido-Lake Toya Summit with the collaboration of many organizations.