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This chapter explores the relationship of Chaucer and his literary work to the wider chivalric culture in which he lived. It discusses the developments over the course of the fourteenth century to the status, significance and remit of the gatekeepers of chivalric knowledge, the officers of arms. Heraldry, the language of chivalry, was omnipresent in the late medieval world and encapsulated status, genealogy and affinity. During the fourteenth century it emerged from exclusively aristocratic usage to include widespread adoption by the gentry and the urban patriciate. Chaucer was himself armigerous and operated at the practical fringes of chivalric culture through work such as overseeing the erection of scaffolds for the Smithfield tournaments of 1390, providing witness testimony in the Court of Chivalry in 1386, and through his wider social life with prominent officers of arms such as his father-in-law, Guyenne King of Arms.
Single patient or ‘n-of-1’ trials are a pragmatic method to achieve optimal, evidence-based treatments for individual patients. Such trials could be particularly valuable in chronic, heterogeneous, difficult to treat illnesses such as schizophrenia.
To identify how often, and in what way, n-of-1 trials have been used in schizophrenia.
We performed a systematic search in the major electronic databases for studies adopting n-of-1 methodology in schizophrenia, published in English from the start of records until the end of January 2017.
We identified six studies meeting inclusion criteria. There was wide variability in study methodology and analysis. Each trial reported positive outcomes for their respective intervention, but all studies were at high risk of bias.
In conclusion, n-of-1 trials are currently underutilised in schizophrenia. Existing trials suggest the method is well tolerated and potentially effective in achieving optimal treatments for patients, but more standardised methods of design, execution and analysis are required in future trials.
Declaration of interest
S.M.L. has received grants and personal fees from Janssen, and personal fees from Otsuka and Sunovion, in the past 3 years, outside the submitted work.
BY the late Middle Ages St Andrews was a major ecclesiastical centre and was home to an associated intellectual community that was to become the foundation of a university. Such a vibrant mix of scholars and clerics made St Andrews an obvious destination for heretical and heterodox thinkers who wished to engage with intellectual circles in the town on matters of doctrine and the principles of Church authority. Evidence indicates that the principal heresies of the late Middle Ages were preached in St Andrews and the eradication and avoidance of heretical thought played a considerable role in early university life. To combat the inherent attraction of St Andrews for those who sought to question orthodoxy, there quickly emerged formal channels of inquisition, with St Andrews providing the structural focal point. Indeed, the rector of the university, Laurence of Lindores, was appointed as first Papal Inquisitor of Heretical Pravity in Scotland. Lindores tried many cases of heresy in both the town and diocese of St Andrews, several of which resulted in public executions but the vast majority of which did not. This essay will explore the links between the university, the Church and the detection of heresy in the town and the diocese of St Andrews.
The closing decades of the fourteenth century and the first of the fifteenth century saw considerable tensions within the late medieval Church. Pluralism and the abuse of benefices were rife, the protracted Great Schism drove the Church into near-terminal disarray, and European alliances were under strain as adherences and bonds were tested. In this climate heterodoxy and heresy flourished, particularly amongst those who sought reform of the Church to resolve its crisis. Considerable scholarly attention on these matters has been focused on England and Bohemia, because the principal heresies of late medieval Europe, Lollardy and Hussitism, grew out of these areas. Yet, despite it being known that heresy and the fear of heresy were features of medieval life in Scotland, the patchy and fragmentary archival record has hindered significant study of the subject. Moreover, the medieval evidence has been shoehorned into the narrative arc of the Scottish Reformation rather than considered in its own historical context.
St Andrews was of tremendous significance in medieval Scotland. Its importance remains readily apparent in the buildings which cluster the rocky promontory jutting out into the North Sea: the towers and walls of cathedral, castle and university provide reminders of the status and wealth of the city in the Middle Ages. As a centre of earthly and spiritual government, as the place of veneration forScotland's patron saint and as an ancient seat of learning, St Andrews was the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland. This volume provides the first full study of this special and multi-faceted centre throughout its golden age. The fourteen chapters use St Andrews as a focus for the discussion of multiple aspects of medieval life in Scotland. They examine church, spirituality, urban society andlearning in a specific context from the seventh to the sixteenth century, allowing for the consideration of St Andrews alongside other great religious and political centres of medieval Europe.
Michael Brown is Professor of Medieval Scottish History, University of St Andrews; Katie Stevenson is Keeper of Scottish History and Archaeology, National Museums Scotland and Senior Lecturer in Late Medieval History, University of St Andrews.
Contributors: Michael Brown, Ian Campbell, David Ditchburn, Elizabeth Ewan, Richard Fawcett, Derek Hall, Matthew Hammond, Julian Luxford, Roger Mason, Norman Reid, Bess Rhodes, Catherine Smith, Katie Stevenson, Simon Taylor, Tom Turpie.
SET along its rocky outcrop between two long sandy beaches, the St Andrews skyline is dominated by its medieval buildings. The towers of the churches of St Salvator, Holy Trinity and St Regulus, the gables of the cathedral and the remains of the castle retain a visual prominence. These buildings are reminders of the status and wealth of St Andrews between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries. In this era St Andrews was a centre of unique significance in Scotland. It could claim to be the ecclesiastical capital of the land. St Andrews was the seat of the leading bishop, and from 1472 the archbishop, of Scotland whose diocese was both the richest in the Scottish church and included the core regions of the kingdom. Its cathedral was by far the largest church (and the largest building) in medieval Scotland and housed relics of the figure increasingly adopted as the nation's patron saint. The long history of scholarship at this site was reflected by the foundation of the first Scottish university in 1413. Though removed from the natural routes between royal residences and the largest burghs, and possessing a rich, but relatively small, hinterland, medieval St Andrews’ claims to be a city rested less on size than on the status provided to an urban community which grew under the wing of powerful clerical patrons and benefited from the flow of clergy, pilgrims and students through its streets and dwellings.
However, the ruinous state of the cathedral, the castle and several of the churches has also been a reminder to modern visitors of the violent closing of the era of St Andrews’ greatest significance in the second half of the sixteenth century. The destruction, neglect and loss of status caused by the Scottish Reformation had a devastating effect on the fortunes of the town. Even in the earliest depiction of the city, drawn by John Geddy around 1580, St Andrews shows the scars of recent upheaval. The cathedral and the churches of the Black and Grey Friars are shown as roofless and uninhabited. These are scars that were never healed. When he included St Andrews in his Scottish tour in 1773, Dr Johnson described it as ‘a city, which only history shews to have once flourished’ as he ‘surveyed the ruins of ancient magnificence’. The ruins and decline struck not only Johnson but also Sir Walter Scott.
IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES, particularly in the British Isles, antiquarian scholars and heralds began to write about the history and science of heraldry. Men such as Edward Bysshe, Elias Ashmole, John Anstis, George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh and Alexander Nisbet produced significant annotated editions and collections of sources comprehending such diverse subjects as the genealogy and coats of arms of the nobility, the art and laws of heraldry, the court of chivalry, chivalric orders and the history of the officers of arms. Interest in these officers was further developed in the nineteenth century, as part of the European vogue for all things ‘medieval’, and into the twentieth century, when the first attempts at comprehensive histories of heralds were written. Most influential amongst these latter works were the two significant tomes written by Anthony Wagner, himself a herald: Heralds and Heraldry and the Heralds of England. However, it was not until the 1980s that the study of officers of arms made an impact on mainstream academic scholarship, with research by Maurice Keen leading the way. Keen devoted an entire chapter of his Wolfson Award-winning Chivalry (1984) to the subject of heralds and heraldry, inaugurating a new phase in the way in which scholars viewed officers of arms. In Keen's view, heralds were significant because by the fourteenth century they had an established position and were dignified figures of the chivalrous world’. However, Keen's work on medieval heralds remains very much an exploratory overview. It was never intended to be comprehensive and thus left much scope for research in this field. Continental scholars have been rather more quick off the mark than their English-speaking colleagues in identifying the potential for important research into the office of arms. The work of Gert Melville, for example, has been very influential. The recent completion of Torsten Hiltmann's project at the Deutsches historisches Institut Paris on the officers of arms in late medieval Burgundy marks a significant advance in our knowledge and a prosopographic and fully searchable database will be available online from 2009. Several contributors to this present volume have also shaped our understanding of the subject: in particular, Adrian Ailes, Michael Jones and Wim van Anrooij.