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The structure of the extended family is often described as a strategy for coping with poverty, unemployment, or migration (Agresti 1979). Whether extended kin relations are thought to be short-term and calculative (Anderson 1971) or bound by ties of reciprocity (Hareven 1982), the extended household itself is assumed to be adaptive to the material conditions under which working-class families live. This characterization is supported by studies of the present-day poor (Angel and Tienda 1982; Stack 1974; Stern 1993). Although Ruggles (1987) questions the importance of economic motives for nineteenth-century extended families, he suggests that by the early twentieth century there is evidence that extended households were increasingly strategic.
Recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption are largely unmet. Lower socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood poverty and poor access to retail outlets selling healthy foods are thought to predict lower consumption. The objective of the present study was to assess the interrelationships between these risk factors as predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption.
Cross-sectional multilevel analyses of data on fruit and vegetable consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, neighbourhood poverty and access to healthy retail food outlets.
Survey data from the 2002 and 2004 New York City Community Health Survey, linked by residential zip code to neighbourhood data.
Adult survey respondents (n 15 634).
Overall 9·9 % of respondents reported eating ≥5 servings of fruits or vegetables in the day prior to the survey. The odds of eating ≥5 servings increased with higher income among women and with higher educational attainment among men and women. Compared with women having less than a high-school education, the OR was 1·12 (95 % CI 0·82, 1·55) for high-school graduates, 1·95 (95 % CI 1·43, 2·66) for those with some college education and 2·13 (95 % CI 1·56, 2·91) for college graduates. The association between education and fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly stronger for women living in lower- v. higher-poverty zip codes (P for interaction < 0·05). The density of healthy food outlets did not predict consumption of fruits or vegetables.
Higher SES is associated with higher consumption of produce, an association that, in women, is stronger for those residing in lower-poverty neighbourhoods.
To identify predominant dietary patterns among Hispanic women and to determine whether adherence to dietary patterns is predicted by neighbourhood-level factors: linguistic isolation, poverty rate and the retail food environment.
Cross-sectional analyses of predictors of adherence to dietary patterns identified from principal component analysis of data collected using the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation FFQ. Census data were used to measure poverty rates and the percentage of Spanish-speaking families in the neighbourhood in which no person aged ≥14 years spoke English very well (linguistic isolation) and the retail food environment was measured using business listings data.
New York City.
A total of 345 Hispanic women.
Two major dietary patterns were identified: a healthy dietary pattern loading high for vegetables, legumes, potatoes, fish and other seafood, which explained 17 % of the variance in the FFQ data and an energy-dense dietary pattern loading high for red meat, poultry, pizza, french fries and high-energy drinks, which explained 9 % of the variance in the FFQ data. Adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with neighbourhood linguistic isolation and negatively associated with neighbourhood poverty. Presence of more fast-food restaurants per square kilometre in the neighbourhood was significantly associated with lower adherence to the healthy diet. Adherence to the energy-dense dietary pattern was inversely, but not significantly, associated with neighbourhood linguistic isolation.
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that living in immigrant enclaves is associated with healthy dietary patterns among Hispanics.
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