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In England, a range of mental health crisis care models and approaches to organising crisis care systems have been implemented, but characteristics associated with their effectiveness are poorly understood.
To (a) develop a typology of catchment area mental health crisis care systems and (b) investigate how crisis care service models and system characteristics relate to psychiatric hospital admissions and detentions.
Crisis systems data were obtained from a 2019 English national survey. Latent class analyses were conducted to identify discernible typologies, and mixed-effects negative binomial regression models were fitted to explore associations between crisis care models and admissions and detention rates, obtained from nationally reported data.
No clear typology of catchment area crisis care systems emerged. Regression models suggested that provision of a crisis telephone service within the local crisis system was associated with a 11.6% lower admissions rate and 15.3% lower detention rate. Provision of a crisis cafe was associated with a 7.8% lower admission rates. The provision of a crisis assessment team separate from the crisis resolution and home treatment service was associated with a 12.8% higher admission rate.
The configuration of crisis care systems varies considerably in England, but we could not derive a typology that convincingly categorised crisis care systems. Our results suggest that a crisis phone line and a crisis cafe may be associated with lower admission rates. However, our findings suggest crisis assessment teams, separate from home treatment teams, may not be associated with reductions in admission and detentions.
Dietary fibre modulates gastrointestinal (GI) health and function, providing laxation, shifting microbiota, and altering bile acid (BA) metabolism. Fruit juice production removes the polyphenol- and fibre-rich pomace fraction. The effects of orange and apple pomaces on GI outcomes were investigated in healthy, free-living adults. Healthy adults were enrolled in two double-blinded, crossover trials, being randomised by baseline bowel movement (BM) frequency. In the first trial, subjects (n 91) received orange juice (OJ, 0 g fibre/d) or OJ + orange pomace (OJ + P, 10 g fibre/d) for 4 weeks, separated by a 3-week washout. Similarly, in the second trial, subjects (n 90) received apple juice (AJ, 0 g fibre/d) or AJ + apple pomace (AJ + P, 10 g fibre/d). Bowel habit diaries, GI tolerance surveys and 3-d diet records were collected throughout. Fresh faecal samples were collected from a participant subset for microbiota and BA analyses in each study. Neither pomace interventions influenced BM frequency. At Week 4, OJ + P tended to increase (P = 0·066) GI symptom occurrence compared with OJ, while AJ + P tended (P = 0·089) to increase flatulence compared with AJ. Faecalibacterium (P = 0·038) and Negativibacillus (P = 0·043) were differentially abundant between pre- and post-interventions in the apple trial but were no longer significant after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Baseline fibre intake was independently associated with several microbial genera in both trials. Orange or apple pomace supplementation was insufficient to elicit changes in bowel habits, microbiota diversity or BA of free-living adults with healthy baseline BM. Future studies should consider baseline BM frequency and habitual fibre intake.
Adolescents with depression need access to culturally relevant psychological treatment. In many low- and middle-income countries treatments are only accessible to a minority. We adapted group interpersonal therapy (IPT) for adolescents to be delivered through schools in Nepal. Here we report IPT's feasibility, acceptability, and cost.
We recruited 32 boys and 30 girls (aged 13–19) who screened positive for depression. IPT comprised of two individual and 12 group sessions facilitated by nurses or lay workers. Using a pre-post design we assessed adolescents at baseline, post-treatment (0–2 weeks after IPT), and follow-up (8–10 weeks after IPT). We measured depressive symptoms with the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), and functional impairment with a local tool. To assess intervention fidelity supervisors rated facilitators' IPT skills across 27/90 sessions using a standardised checklist. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 adolescents and six facilitators post-intervention, and an activity-based cost analysis from the provider perspective.
Adolescents attended 82.3% (standard deviation 18.9) of group sessions. All were followed up. Depression and functional impairment improved between baseline and follow-up: DSRS score decreased by 81% (95% confidence interval 70–95); functional impairment decreased by 288% (249–351). In total, 95.3% of facilitator IPT skills were rated superior/satisfactory. Adolescents found the intervention useful and acceptable, although some had concerns about privacy in schools. The estimate of intervention unit cost was US $96.9 with facilitators operating at capacity.
School-based group IPT is feasible and acceptable in Nepal. Findings support progression to a randomised controlled trial to assess effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.
To better understand parents’ accounts of their prenatal and postnatal experience after prenatal diagnosis of CHD – particularly emotional processing and coping mechanisms – to identify strategies to improve support.
This single-centre, longitudinal qualitative study included pregnant mothers and their support persons seen in Fetal Cardiology Clinic at Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital from May through August 2019 for probable complex CHD. Twenty-seven individuals from 17 families participated in 62 phone interviews during pregnancy and postpartum: 27 conducted after the initial prenatal cardiology consultation, 15 after a follow-up prenatal visit, and 20 after birth. Applied thematic analysis approach was used to code and analyse transcribed interviews. Coding and codebook revisions occurred iteratively; intercoder reliability was >80%.
Patients included mothers (16 [59%]), fathers (8 [30%]), and other support persons (3 [11%]). Initial fetal diagnoses included a range of moderate to severe CHD. Prenatally, parents sought to maintain hope while understanding the diagnosis; planning for the future rather than focusing on day-to-day was more common if prognoses were better. Postnatally, with confirmation of prenatal diagnoses, parents’ sense of control expanded, and they desired more active engagement in clinical decision making.
To enhance effective communication and support, understanding how parents conceptualise hope in relation to diagnosis and how that may evolve over time is critical. Expectant parents whose child has a significant risk of mortality may demonstrate hope by focusing on positivity. As prognostic uncertainty diminishes postpartum, the parental role on the team may shift, requiring clinicians to provide different support.
The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
Background: Healthcare exposure results in significant microbiome disruption, particularly in the setting of critical illness, which may contribute to risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Patients admitted to long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) have extensive prior healthcare exposure and critical illness; significant microbiome disruption has been previously documented among LTACH patients. We compared the predictive value of 3 respiratory tract microbiome disruption indices—bacterial community diversity, dominance, and absolute abundance—as they relate to risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and adverse ventilator-associated events (VAE), which commonly complicate LTACH care. Methods: We enrolled 83 subjects on admission to an academic LTACH for ventilator weaning and performed longitudinal sampling of endotracheal aspirates, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Illumina HiSeq), bacterial community profiling (QIIME2) for diversity, and 16S rRNA quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacterial abundance. Statistical analyses were performed with R and Stan software. Mixed-effects models were fit to relate the admission MDIs to subsequent clinically diagnosed VAP and VAE. Results: Of the 83 patients, 19 had been diagnosed with pneumonia during the 14 days prior to LTACH admission (ie, “recent past VAP”); 23 additional patients were receiving antibiotics consistent with empiric VAP therapy within 48 hours of admission (ie, “empiric VAP therapy”); and 41 patients had no evidence of VAP at admission (ie, “no suspected VAP”). We detected no statistically significant differences in admission Shannon diversity, maximum amplicon sequence variant (ASV)–level proportional abundance, or 16S qPCR across the variables of interest. In isolation, all 3 admission microbiome disruption indices showed poor predictive performance, though Shannon diversity performed better than maximum ASV abundance. Predictive models that combined (1) bacterial diversity or abundance with (2) recent prior VAP diagnosis and (3) concurrent antibiotic exposure best predicted 14-day VAP (type S error < 0.05) and 30-day VAP (type S error < 0.003). In this cohort, VAE risk was paradoxically associated with higher admission Shannon diversity and lower admission maximum ASV abundance. Conclusions: In isolation, respiratory tract microbiome disruption indices obtained at LTACH admission showed poor predictive performance for subsequent VAP and VAE. But diversity and abundance models incorporating recent VAP history and admission antibiotic exposure performed well predicting 14-day and 30-day VAP.
Interprofessional collaboration is understood to improve efficiencies and quality of care but is associated with challenges such as professionals’ differing routines, knowledge, and identities, as well as professional hierarchies and time constraints. Given these challenges, there is limited understanding of how professionals collaborate effectively in providing patient-centred care. This study, with a convergence triangulation mixed-methods study design, explored interprofessional staffs’ perceptions of interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred care when working with hospitalized older adults. Thirty-six staff responded to a survey which included the Patient-Centred Care measure and the Modified Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration; we also interviewed 14 nursing staff. Although all scores suggested a high value was placed on interprofessional collaboration, scores were low related to activities that facilitated team processes. We identified three themes from the data: knowing the patient/family, functional needs, and communication processes. Staff identified daily rounds with interprofessional teams as supportive of interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred-care.
Existing data sources have tremendous potential to inform public health activities. However, a patchwork of data protection laws impede data sharing efforts. Nevertheless, a data-sharing initiative in Peoria, IL was able to overcome challenges to set up a cross-sectoral data system to coordinate mental health, law enforcement, and healthcare services.
Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) offer brief, intensive home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis. CRT implementation is highly variable; positive trial outcomes have not been reproduced in scaled-up CRT care.
To evaluate a 1-year programme to improve CRTs’ model fidelity in a non-masked, cluster-randomised trial (part of the Crisis team Optimisation and RElapse prevention (CORE) research programme, trial registration number: ISRCTN47185233).
Fifteen CRTs in England received an intervention, informed by the US Implementing Evidence-Based Practice project, involving support from a CRT facilitator, online implementation resources and regular team fidelity reviews. Ten control CRTs received no additional support. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction, measured by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8), completed by 15 patients per team at CRT discharge (n = 375). Secondary outcomes: CRT model fidelity, continuity of care, staff well-being, in-patient admissions and bed use and CRT readmissions were also evaluated.
All CRTs were retained in the trial. Median follow-up CSQ-8 score was 28 in each group: the adjusted average in the intervention group was higher than in the control group by 0.97 (95% CI −1.02 to 2.97) but this was not significant (P = 0.34). There were fewer in-patient admissions, lower in-patient bed use and better staff psychological health in intervention teams. Model fidelity rose in most intervention teams and was significantly higher than in control teams at follow-up. There were no significant effects for other outcomes.
The CRT service improvement programme did not achieve its primary aim of improving patient satisfaction. It showed some promise in improving CRT model fidelity and reducing acute in-patient admissions.
Disability-related education is essential for disaster responders and critical care transporters to ensure positive patient outcomes. This pilot study evaluated the effect of an online educational intervention on disaster responders and critical care transporters’ knowledge of and feelings of self-efficacy about caring for individuals with developmental disabilities.
A 1-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design was used. A convenience sample of 33 disaster responders and critical care transporters participated.
Of the 33 participants, only 24% had received prior education on this topic, and 88% stated that such education would be beneficial to their care of patients. Nineteen participants completed both the pretest and posttest, and overall performance on knowledge items improved from 66% correct to 81% correct. Self-efficacy for caring for developmentally disabled individuals improved, with all 10 items showing a statistically significant improvement.
Online education is recommended to improve the knowledge and self-efficacy of disaster responders and critical care transporters who care for this vulnerable population after disasters and emergencies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:677–681)
Camera trap surveys are a non-invasive way to monitor wildlife populations. Although most often used to study medium- and large-sized mammals, camera traps also detect non-target species. These detections provide useful ecological information on little-known species, but such data usually remain unanalysed. We used detections from camera-trapping surveys of native carnivores and small mammals to examine distribution patterns and occupancy trends of little-known ground-dwelling rainforest birds at seven sites across the Masoala-Makira protected area complex in north-eastern Madagascar. We obtained 4,083 detections of 28 bird species over 18,056 trap nights from 200 to 2013. We estimated occupancy across the Masoala-Makira protected area complex (hereafter, landscape occupancy) and annual trends in occupancy at three resurveyed sites for five commonly observed species. Landscape occupancy across Masoala-Makira ranged from 0.75 (SE 0.09; Madagascar Magpie-robin Copsychus albospecularis) to 0.25 (SE 0.06; Scaly Ground-roller Geobiastes squamiger). Ground-dwelling forest bird occupancy was similar at forest sites that ranged from intact to fully degraded; however, three species were detected less often at sites with high feral cat trap success. Nearly half of all focal species showed declines in annual occupancy probability at one resurveyed site (S02) from 2008 to 2013. The declines in ground-dwelling bird occupancy could have community-wide consequences as birds provide ecosystem services such as seed dispersal and pest regulation. We suggest immediate conservation measures—such as feral cat removal—be implemented to protect ground-dwelling forest birds and other threatened taxa across this landscape.
To evaluate a central line care maintenance bundle to reduce central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in non–intensive care unit settings.
Before-after trial with 12-month follow-up period.
A 1,250-bed teaching hospital.
Patients with central lines on 8 general medicine wards. Four wards received the intervention and 4 served as controls.
A multifaceted catheter care maintenance bundle consisting of educational programs for nurses, update of hospital policies, visual aids, a competency assessment, process monitoring, regular progress reports, and consolidation of supplies necessary for catheter maintenance.
Data were collected for 25,542 catheter-days including 43 CLABSI (rate, 1.68 per 1,000 catheter-days) and 4,012 catheter dressing observations. Following the intervention, a 2.5% monthly decrease in the CLABSI incidence density was observed on intervention floors but this was not statistically significant (95% CI, −5.3% to 0.4%). On control floors, there was a smaller but marginally significant decrease in CLABSI incidence during the study (change in monthly rate, −1.1%; 95% CI, −2.1% to −0.1%). Implementation of the bundle was associated with improvement in catheter dressing compliance on intervention wards (78.8% compliance before intervention vs 87.9% during intervention/follow-up; P<.001) but improvement was also observed on control wards (84.9% compliance before intervention vs 90.9% during intervention/follow-up; P=.001).
A multifaceted program to improve catheter care was associated with improvement in catheter dressing care but no change in CLABSI rates. Additional study is needed to determine strategies to prevent CLABSI in non–intensive care unit patients.
Childhood maltreatment is a serious individual, familial, and societal threat that compromises healthy development and is associated with lasting alterations to emotion perception, processing, and regulation (Cicchetti & Curtis, 2005; Pollak, Cicchetti, Hornung, & Reed, 2000; Pollak & Tolley-Schell, 2003). Individuals with a history of maltreatment show altered structural and functional brain development in both frontal and limbic structures (Hart & Rubia, 2012). In particular, previous research has identified hyperactive amygdala responsivity associated with childhood maltreatment (e.g., Dannlowski et al., 2012). However, less is known about the impact of maltreatment on the relationship between the amygdala and other brain regions. The present study employed an emotion processing functional magnetic resonance imaging task to examine task-based activation and functional connectivity in adults who experienced maltreatment as children. The sample included adults with a history of substantiated childhood maltreatment (n = 33) and comparison adults (n = 38) who were well matched on demographic variables, all of whom have been studied prospectively since childhood. The maltreated group exhibited greater activation than comparison participants in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. In addition, maltreated adults showed increased amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The results suggest that the intense early stress of childhood maltreatment is associated with lasting alterations to frontolimbic circuitry.
The earliest cognitive deficits observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) appear to center on memory tasks that require relational memory (RM), the ability to link or integrate unrelated pieces of information. RM impairments in aMCI likely reflect neural changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We tested the hypothesis that individuals with aMCI, as compared to cognitively normal (CN) controls, would recruit neural regions outside of the MTL and PPC to support relational memory. To this end, we directly compared the neural underpinnings of successful relational retrieval in aMCI and CN groups, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), holding constant the stimuli and encoding task. The fMRI data showed that the CN, compared to the aMCI, group activated left precuneus, left angular gyrus, right posterior cingulate, and right parahippocampal cortex during relational retrieval, while the aMCI group, relative to the CN group, activated superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for this comparison. Such findings indicate an early shift in the functional neural architecture of relational retrieval in aMCI, and may prove useful in future studies aimed at capitalizing on functionally intact neural regions as targets for treatment and slowing of the disease course. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–12)
The provision of surgery within humanitarian crises is complex, requiring coordination and cooperation among all stakeholders. During the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit best practice guidelines were proposed to provide greater accountability and standardization in surgical humanitarian relief efforts. Surgical humanitarian relief planning should occur early and include team selection and preparation, appropriate disaster-specific anticipatory planning, needs assessment, and an awareness of local resources and limitations of cross-cultural project management. Accurate medical record keeping and timely follow-up is important for a transient surgical population. Integration with local health systems is essential and will help facilitate longer term surgical health system strengthening.