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Can children tell how different a speaker's accent is from their own? In Experiment 1 (N = 84), four- and five-year-olds heard speakers with different accents and indicated where they thought each speaker lived relative to a reference point on a map that represented their current location. Five-year-olds generally placed speakers with stronger accents (as judged by adults) at more distant locations than speakers with weaker accents. In contrast, four-year-olds did not show differences in where they placed speakers with different accents. In Experiment 2 (N = 56), the same sentences were low-pass filtered so that only prosodic information remained. This time, children judged which of five possible aliens had produced each utterance, given a reference speaker. Children of both ages showed differences in which alien they chose based on accent, and generally rated speakers with foreign accents as more different from their native accent than speakers with regional accents. Together, the findings show that preschoolers perceive accent distance, that children may be sensitive to the distinction between foreign and regional accents, and that preschoolers likely use prosody to differentiate among accents.
The Chacoan great houses and great kivas of the U.S. Southwest are monumental, both in their scale and in conveying meaning. Visibility is key to understanding how and by whom that meaning was experienced. Although often discussed in Chaco studies, visibility has been infrequently tested. Here, the authors consider 430 great house and great kiva locations, and evaluate their visibility within their local landscapes. Using a total viewshed approach, they provide new evidence to suggest that great houses, but not great kivas, were often placed to be highly visible to individuals in the surrounding landscape. These patterns may speak to the social and physical properties of the structures.
Between 1910 and 1970, millions of southern-born Americans migrated to the northern and western regions of the country in search of better opportunities. Some traveled only short distances, leaving Appalachia for nearby destinations in the southern Midwest. Others made the much longer trek to the West Coast. In this article, we use data from the 1920, 1940, and 1970 Public Use Microdata Samples to investigate the distances traveled by male participants in the Great Migration, with a special focus on differences by race, as well as on changes over time. We find that the average distance traveled increased substantially during the Great Migration for blacks and whites alike. However, throughout this time period, white migrants moved significantly farther than black migrants. The greater propensity for white migrants to move west, rather than north, accounts for a good deal of this overall racial variation. Although the difference in distance traveled between blacks and whites narrowed significantly over time, it remained substantial as the Great Migration came to a close. We conclude by highlighting the impact of these differential migration patterns on the composition and social conditions in northern cities.
Using data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS), this analysis examines the economic activity of black and white southern-born female migrants participating in the Great Migration. Labor force participation and occupational SEI scores are investigated with specific focus on racial differences within and between migrant groups. Black migrants had a higher probability of participating in the labor force, yet their employment was concentrated among the lower SEI occupations throughout the period. Racial differences also were observed among the influence of personal, household, and location characteristics on economic activity such that the positive associations were less pronounced, while the negative impacts were differentially felt among black migrant women; education was less beneficial, and the deterring effects of marital status were less pronounced for black migrants. Racial differences narrowed at the end of the Great Migration for the southern migrants, reflecting a pattern most similar to nonmigrant northerners and more advantageous than that observed for nonmigrant southern women.
Interventions that prevent healthcare-associated infection should lead to fewer deaths and shorter hospital stays. Cleaning hands (with soap or alcohol) is an effective way to prevent the transmission of organisms, but rates of compliance with hand hygiene are sometimes disappointingly low. The National Hand Hygiene Initiative in Australia aimed to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, with the goal of reducing rates of healthcare-associated infection.
We examined whether the introduction of the National Hand Hygiene Initiative was associated with a change in infection rates. Monthly infection rates for healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections were examined in 38 Australian hospitals across 6 states. We used Poisson regression and examined 12 possible patterns of change, with the best fitting pattern chosen using the Akaike information criterion. Monthly bed-days were included to control for increased hospital use over time.
The National Hand Hygiene Initiative was associated with a reduction in infection rates in 4 of the 6 states studied. Two states showed an immediate reduction in rates of 17% and 28%, 2 states showed a linear decrease in rates of 8% and 11% per year, and 2 showed no change in infection rates.
The intervention was associated with reduced infection rates in most states. The failure in 2 states may have been because those states already had effective initiatives before the national initiative’s introduction or because infection rates were already low and could not be further reduced.
Using behavioral and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response indices through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study investigated whether youths with disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) plus psychopathic traits (DBD + PT) show aberrant sensitivity to eye gaze information generally and/or whether they show particular insensitivity to eye gaze information in the context of fearful expressions. The participants were 36 children and adolescents (ages 10–17 years); 17 had DBD + PT and 19 were healthy comparison subjects. Participants performed a spatial attention paradigm where spatial attention was cued by eye gaze in faces displaying fearful, angry, or neutral affect. Eye gaze sensitivity was indexed both behaviorally and as BOLD response. There were no group differences in behavioral response: both groups showed significantly faster responses if the target was in the congruent spatial direction indicated by eye gaze. Neither group showed a Congruence × Emotion interaction; neither group showed an advantage from the displayer's emotional expression behaviorally. However, the BOLD response revealed a significant Group × Congruence × Emotion interaction. The comparison youth showed increased activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting network (superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal sulcus) for fearful congruent relative to incongruent trials relative to the youth with DBD + PT. The results are discussed with reference to current models of DBD + PT and possible treatment innovations.
This paper describes the preparation of alkyl terminated silicon nanoparticles that are air and moisture stable by the oxidation of magnesium silicide with bromine and then the subsequent termination with an alkyl Grignard reagent. The nanoparticles have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy.
Interviews are designed to gather propositional information communicated through reference and predication. Some lament the fact that interviews always include interactional positioning that presupposes and sometimes creates social identities and power relationships. Interactional aspects of interview events threaten to corrupt the propositional information communicated, and it appears that these aspects need to be controlled. Interviews do often yield useful propositional information, and interviewers must guard against the sometimes-corrupting influence of interactional factors. But we argue that the interactional aspects of interview events can also be valuable data. Interview subjects sometimes position themselves in ways that reveal something about the habitual positioning that characterizes individuals or groups. We illustrate the potential value of this interactional information by describing “payday mugging” stories told by interviewees in one New Latino Diaspora town. (Interview data, narrating events, transference)
The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant's diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers’ weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant's usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0·2 %) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22·6 %) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers’ antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers’ reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants’ foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.
To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and ‘any’ breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.
This prospective cross-sectional study involved the recruitment of women during the antenatal period, with subsequent follow-up of mothers who delivered healthy, term singleton infants, at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum.
Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics in the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin.
In all, 401 Irish-national and forty-nine non-Irish-national mothers met the criteria for inclusion in the present study.
Breast-feeding initiation rates of the Irish-national and non-Irish-nationals were 47 % and 79·6 %, respectively. Factors that were significantly (P = 0·000) associated with both breast-feeding initiation and ‘any’ breast-feeding at 6 weeks included mothers who were ≥35 years, educated to third level, reported positive postnatal encouragement to breast-feed from their partners and had a positive antenatal intention to breast-feed. The maternal negative perception that breast-feeding is an embarrassing way to feed an infant was demonstrated as a major barrier to initiation.
Breast-feeding initiation and prevalence rates of the Irish-national population remain low and lag considerably behind national and international targets. Inclusion of the partner in breast-feeding promotional initiatives during the antenatal period may be crucial to increase breast-feeding rates in Ireland. Public health campaigns that focus on increasing the social acceptability of breast-feeding may prove effective in addressing this cultural barrier.
The cohomology groups of some sequence algebras are considered. In particular, the amenability of the James space $J_p$ is investigated; this space was first studied by R. C. James and was shown to be a Banach algebra for the pointwise product. Then a full classification of the closed ideals in $J_p$ is given, extending a result of N. J. Laustsen. Finally, some related algebras $\alp$ are considered, and it is established when these Banach algebras are amenable.
RFLP, DNA fingerprinting and VCG methods were used to characterize
fourteen Verticillium dahliae isolates collected from
southwestern Ontario, Canada. The isolates were typed as not pathogenic
to tomato (NP), race 1 (avirulent on cvs carrying the Ve
resistance gene) or race 2 (virulent on Ve cvs). On the basis
RFLPs, RAPDs, and DNA fingerprints detected by hybridization to a
dispersed, repetitive genomic DNA probe, the isolates were classified
into five DNA types. Type I included two NP isolates. Type II
included four race 2, and three NP isolates. Types III and V were
represented by single race 2 and race 1 isolates, respectively. Type
IV included one race 2, and two race 1 isolates. Vegetative compatibility
was determined for selected NP, race 1, and race 2 isolates
of each race type/DNA type combination. Isolates of the same DNA type
were compatible, as were type II and III isolates (VCG
4B), and type IV (VCG 2A) and V isolates (VCG 2B). These data show a
level of genetic diversity not previously identified in the
V. dahliae tomato pathogen population, and suggest multiple origins
for the Ontario race 2 pathotype.
Severe cognitive impairment affects many patients with schizophrenia, especially geriatric in-patients. Little is known about the course of this impairment, however.
Two hundred and twenty-four geriatric schizophrenic in-patients were examined for changes in cognitive functioning over a one-year follow-up period, and 45 of them were assessed over a two-year period. In addition, the subset of 45 patients participated in a one-week and one-month test-retest reliability study of the instrument used to assess cognitive impairment, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
The average MMSE scores did not change over a one- or two-year follow-up period. The test-retest reliability of the scale was extremely good at both retest intervals.
Among the implications of these data are that cognitive changes in geriatric schizophrenic patients are very slow and are more consistent with a neurodevelopmental process than a neurodegenerative course.
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