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Morbidity is defined as a state of being unhealthy or of experiencing an aspect of health that is “generally bad for you”, and postoperative morbidity linked to paediatric cardiac surgery encompasses a range of conditions that may impact the patient and are potential targets for quality assurance.
As part of a wider study, a multi-disciplinary group of professionals aimed to define a list of morbidities linked to paediatric cardiac surgery that was prioritised by a panel reflecting the views of both professionals from a range of disciplines and settings as well as parents and patients.
We present a set of definitions of morbidity for use in routine audit after paediatric cardiac surgery. These morbidities are ranked in priority order as acute neurological event, unplanned re-operation, feeding problems, the need for renal support, major adverse cardiac events or never events, extracorporeal life support, necrotising enterocolitis, surgical site of blood stream infection, and prolonged pleural effusion or chylothorax. It is recognised that more than one such morbidity may arise in the same patient and these are referred to as multiple morbidities, except in the case of extracorporeal life support, which is a stand-alone constellation of morbidity.
It is feasible to define a range of paediatric cardiac surgical morbidities for use in routine audit that reflects the priorities of both professionals and parents. The impact of these morbidities on the patient and family will be explored prospectively as part of a wider ongoing, multi-centre study.
To investigate the prospective associations between dietary patterns in childhood and CVD risk in adolescence.
Prospective cohort study. Exposures were dietary patterns at age 7, 10 and 13 years derived by cluster analysis. Outcomes were physiological and biochemical cardiovascular risk markers.
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), UK.
Children (n 2311, 44.1 % male) with complete data available.
After adjustment for known confounders, we observed an association between being in the ‘Processed’ and ‘Packed lunch’ dietary pattern clusters at age 7 and BMI at age 17. Compared with the ‘healthy’ cluster, the OR (95 % CI) for being in the top 10 % for BMI was 1·60 (1·01, 2·55; P=0·05) for the ‘Processed’ cluster and 1·96 (1·22, 3·13; P=0·005) for the ‘Packed lunch’ cluster. However, no association was observed between BMI and dietary patterns at age 10 and 13. Longitudinal analyses showed that being in either the ‘Processed’ or ‘Packed lunch’ cluster at age 7 was associated with increased risk of being in the top 10 % for BMI regardless of subsequent cluster membership. No associations between other cardiovascular risk measures and dietary patterns were robust to adjustment for confounders.
We did not find any consistent evidence to support an association between dietary patterns in childhood and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence, with the exception of BMI and dietary pattern at age 7 only. However, the importance of dietary intake in childhood upon health later in life requires further investigation and we would encourage the adoption of a healthy diet as early in life as possible.
To categorise records according to primary cardiac diagnosis in the United Kingdom Central Cardiac Audit Database in order to add this information to a risk adjustment model for paediatric cardiac surgery.
Codes from the International Paediatric Congenital Cardiac Code were mapped to recognisable primary cardiac diagnosis groupings, allocated using a hierarchy and less refined diagnosis groups, based on the number of functional ventricles and presence of aortic obstruction.
A National Clinical Audit Database.
Children undergoing cardiac interventions: the proportions for each diagnosis scheme are presented for 13,551 first patient surgical episodes since 2004.
In Scheme 1, the most prevalent diagnoses nationally were ventricular septal defect (13%), patent ductus arteriosus (10.4%), and tetralogy of Fallot (9.5%). In Scheme 2, the prevalence of a biventricular heart without aortic obstruction was 64.2% and with aortic obstruction was 14.1%; the prevalence of a functionally univentricular heart without aortic obstruction was 4.3% and with aortic obstruction was 4.7%; the prevalence of unknown (ambiguous) number of ventricles was 8.4%; and the prevalence of acquired heart disease only was 2.2%. Diagnostic groups added to procedural information: of the 17% of all operations classed as “not a specific procedure”, 97.1% had a diagnosis identified in Scheme 1 and 97.2% in Scheme 2.
Diagnostic information adds to surgical procedural data when the complexity of case mix is analysed in a national database. These diagnostic categorisation schemes may be used for future investigation of the frequency of conditions and evaluation of long-term outcome over a series of procedures.
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