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The identification of determinants of dietary intake is an important prerequisite for the development of interventions to improve diet. The present systematic literature review aimed to compile the current knowledge on individual functional determinants of dietary intake in community-dwelling older adults.
A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Titles, abstracts and full texts were screened according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were included when focusing on dietary intake as an outcome and on chemosensory, oral, cognitive or physical function as a determinant.
Older adults at least 65 years old without acute or specific chronic diseases.
From initially 14 585 potentially relevant papers, thirty-six were included. For chemosensory, cognitive and physical function only a few papers were found, which reported inconsistent results regarding the relationship to dietary intake. In contrast, oral function was extensively studied (n 31). Different surrogates of oral function like dental status, number of teeth, bite force or chewing problems were associated with food as well as nutrient intakes including fibre. As all except six studies had a cross-sectional design, no causal relationships could be derived.
Among functional determinants of dietary intake oral factors are well documented in older adults, whereas the role of other functional determinants remains unclear and needs further systematic research.
Numerous studies have reported an association between vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D) deficiency and low economic status, lower educational level, drugs exposure, smoking and reduced physical activity. Our study analysed the association between sociodemographic factors and 25(OH)D status in Polish (Caucasian) seniors.
Cross-sectional study (part of the PolSenior study). Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by a solid-phase ELISA method; a standardized questionnaire evaluated educational level, economic status, alcohol consumption, current or past cigarette smoking, physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living.
Community-dwelling randomly selected individuals aged 65 years or older, selected using three-stage stratified, proportional draw.
Seniors (n 3472; 1658 women and 1814 men).
Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 20·5 (sd 9·6) ng/ml. Values below the recommended level (30 ng/ml) were detected in 82·8 % of men and 90·4 % of women. Regression analysis revealed that the difference between sexes was associated with decreased walking activity in women, probably resulting in less sunlight exposure. There was a positive association between any disability in ADL and the presence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. In the sex-adjusted analysis, older age, alcohol abstinence and lack of cycling and long-distance walking were explanatory variables for vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is frequent in the older Polish population and associated with functional disability and impaired mobility of seniors.
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