To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The NOSAMS facility at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has started to develop and apply techniques for measuring very small samples on a standard Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system with high-current hemispherical Cs sputter ion sources. Over the past year, results on samples ranging from 7 to 160 μg C showed both the feasibility of such analyses and the present limitations on reducing the size of solid carbon samples. One of the main factors affecting the AMS results is the dependence of a number of the beam optics parameters on the extracted ion beam current. The extracted currents range from 0.5 to 10 μA of 12C− for the sample sizes given above. We here discuss the setup of the AMS system and methods for reliable small-sample measurements and give the AMS-related limits to sample size and the measurement uncertainties.
Techniques for making precise and accurate radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements on samples containing less than a few hundred micrograms of carbon are being developed at the NOSAMS facility. A detailed examination of all aspects of the sample preparation and data analysis process shows encouraging results. Small quantities of CO2 are reduced to graphite over cobalt catalyst at an optimal temperature of 605°. Measured 14C/12C ratios of the resulting targets are affected by machine-induced isotopic fractionation, which appears directly related to the decrease in ion current generated by the smaller sample sizes. It is possible to compensate effectively for this fractionation by measuring samples relative to small standards of identical size. Examination of the various potential sources of background 14C contamination indicates that the sample combustion process is the largest contributor, adding ca. 1 μg of carbon with a less-than-modern 14C concentration.
First published in 1892, this important work by the mathematician Karl Pearson (1857–1936) presents a thoroughly positivist account of the nature of science. Pearson claims that 'the scientific method is the sole gateway to the whole region of knowledge', rejecting additional fields of inquiry such as metaphysics. He also emphasises that science can, and should, describe only the 'how' of phenomena and never the 'why'. A scholar of King's College, Cambridge, and later a professor at King's College and University College London, Pearson made significant contributions to the philosophy of science. Including helpful chapter summaries, this book explores in detail a number of scientific concepts, such as matter, energy, space and time. The work influenced such thinkers as Albert Einstein, who considered it to be essential reading when he created his study group, the Olympia Academy, at the age of twenty-three.