A retrospective study of 258 children admitted to Ruchill Hospital, Glasgow, with croup between 1966 and 1972 indicated that the viruses most frequently associated with the syndrome were parainfluenza types 1 and 3 and influenza A. Most cases were admitted in the late autumn and winter months, with a small peak in May and June. This seasonal distribution mirrored the circulation of the main causative agents in the community, parainfluenza 1 being principally associated with the autumn cases, influenza A the winter cases and parainfluenza 3 the summer cases. Two of these ‘croup associated’ viruses showed regular periodicity, parainfluenza 1 occurring biennially in even years and influenza A in most years. The periodicity of parainfluenza 3 is as yet undetermined.