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Psychosocial interventions that mitigate psychosocial distress in cancer patients are important. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program among adult cancer patients. A secondary aim was to examine pre–post-program changes in psychosocial wellbeing.
The research design was a feasibility and acceptability study, with an examination of pre- to post-intervention changes in psychosocial measures. A study information pack was posted to 173 adult cancer patients 6 months–5 years post-diagnosis, with an invitation to attend an eight-week group-based adaptation of the MSC program.
Thirty-two (19%) consented to the program, with 30 commencing. Twenty-seven completed the program (mean age: 62.93 years, SD 14.04; 17 [63%] female), attending a mean 6.93 (SD 1.11) group sessions. There were no significant differences in medico-demographic factors between program-completers and those who did not consent. However, there was a trend toward shorter time since diagnosis in the program-completers group. Program-completers rated the program highly regarding content, relevance to the concerns of cancer patients, and the likelihood of recommending the program to other cancer patients. Sixty-three percent perceived that their mental wellbeing had improved from pre- to post-program; none perceived a deterioration in mental wellbeing. Small-to-medium effects were observed for depressive symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, stress, loneliness, body image satisfaction, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
Significance of results
The MSC program appears feasible and acceptable to adults diagnosed with non-advanced cancer. The preliminary estimates of effect sizes in this sample suggest that participation in the program was associated with improvements in psychosocial wellbeing. Collectively, these findings suggest that there may be value in conducting an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the MSC program in enhancing the psychosocial wellbeing of cancer patients.
We have searched optical u′g′r′i′z′ imaging of 22 deg2 centred on the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 for new dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group. We report 45 promising new candidates, which are broadly consistent with the properties of nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and extend the size-luminosity relation toward fainter total luminosities and smaller sizes for known dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group (LG). Altogether, these new results show NGC 5128 to be the host of a large reservoir of low-mass dwarf galaxies that is at least as rich as that of the LG and is ripe for detailed follow-up observations.
The landmark US Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study established the
benefits of individualised medication titration and optimisation
strategies to improve short- to medium-term outcomes in attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This individualised medication management
approach was subsequently incorporated into the National Institute for
Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ADHD Clinical Guidelines (NICE CG78).
However, little is known about clinicians' attitudes towards implementing
these medication management strategies for ADHD in routine care.
To examine National Health Service (NHS) healthcare professionals'
consensus on ADHD medication management strategies.
Using the Delphi method, we examined perceptions on the importance and
feasibility of implementing 103 ADHD treatment statements from sources
including the UK NICE ADHD guidelines and US medication management
Certain recommendations for ADHD medication management were judged as
important and feasible to implement, including a stepwise titration of
stimulant medication. Other recommendations were perceived as important
but not feasible to implement in routine practice, such as weekly clinic
follow-up with the family during titration and collection of follow-up
Many of the key guideline recommendations for ADHD medication management
are viewed by clinicians as important and feasible to implement. However,
some recommendations present significant implementation challenges within
the context of routine NHS clinical care in England.
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) affects a range of language and cognitive domains that impact on conversation. Little is known about conversation breakdown in the semantic variant of PPA (svPPA, also known as semantic dementia). This study investigates conversation of people with svPPA.
Dyadic conversations about everyday activities between seven individuals with svPPA and their partners, and seven control pairs were video recorded and transcribed. Number of words, turns, and length of turns were measured. Trouble-indicating behaviors (TIBs) and repair behaviors were categorized and identified as successful or not for each participant in each dyad.
In general, individuals with svPPA were active participants in conversation, taking an equal proportion of turns, but indicating a great deal of more trouble in conversation, shown by the significantly higher number of TIBs than evidenced by partners or control participants. TIBs were interactive (asking for confirmation with a shorter repetition of the original utterance or a repetition which included a request for specific information) and non-interactive (such as failing to take up or continue the topic or a minimal response) and unlike those previously reported for people with other PPA variants and dementia of the Alzheimer type. Communication behaviors of the partner were critical to conversational success.
Examination of trouble and repair in 10-min conversations of individuals with svPPA and their important communication partners has potential to inform speech pathology interventions to enhance successful conversation, in svPPA and should be an integral part of the comprehensive care plan.
As one of the largest marathons worldwide, the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (BACCM; Chicago, Illinois USA) accumulates high volumes of data. Race organizers and engaged agencies need the ability to access specific data in real-time. This report details a data visualization system designed for the Chicago Marathon and establishes key principles for event management data visualization. The data visualization system allows for efficient data communication among the organizing agencies of Chicago endurance events. Agencies can observe the progress of the race throughout the day and obtain needed information, such as the number and location of runners on the course and current weather conditions. Implementation of the system can reduce time-consuming, face-to-face interactions between involved agencies by having key data streams in one location, streamlining communications with the purpose of improving race logistics, as well as medical preparedness and response.
HankenT, YoungS, SmilowitzK, ChiampasG, WaskowskiD. Developing a Data Visualization System for the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):572–577.
We made preliminary AMS measurements of 41Ca/Ca ratios in bone and limestone specimens with the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). We were able to avoid pre-enrichment of 41Ca used in previous experiments due to a substantial increase in Ca-beam intensity. Most of the measured ratios lie in the 10-14 range, with a few values below 10-14. In general, these values are higher than the ones observed by the AMS group at the University of Pennsylvania. We discuss possible implications of these results. We also present the current status of half-life measurements of 41Ca and discuss 41Ca production processes on earth.
Accurate reconstruction of the biomass, structure, and productivity of ancient forests from their fossilized remnants remains an interesting challenge in paleoecology. In well-preserved Tertiary fossil Metasequoia forests of Canada's Arctic, in situ stumps and fragments of stems, treetops, and branches contain substantial information about tree dimensions that can be used to determine tree height, stand biomass, and other characteristics such as canopy depth and structure, and the history of stand development. To validate a method for reconstructing the biomass of the Eocene floodplain Metasequoia forests of Axel Heiberg Island, we measured stump diameters and spacing, and stem, branch, and treetop characteristics in living Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Chamaecyparis thyoides stands in ways that simulate the limited measurements that can be made in well-preserved fossil forests in Canada and probably elsewhere. We used those limited measurements to estimate tree height and volume, branch and foliar dry weights, and tree biomass. The estimates derived from the limited data set are usually within 15% of the estimates derived from the methods currently used in forest ecology for determining those metrics in modern forests. Under appropriate conditions, the biomass of ancient forests can be estimated with reasonable confidence.
Genetic influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission have been implicated in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are theorized to impact cognitive functioning via alterations in frontal–striatal circuitry. Neuropsychological functioning has been proposed to account for the potential associations between dopamine candidate genes and ADHD. However, to date, this mediation hypothesis has not been directly tested. Participants were 498 youth ages 6–17 years (mean M = 10.8 years, SD = 2.4 years, 55.0% male). All youth completed a multistage, multiple-informant assessment procedure to identify ADHD and non-ADHD cases, as well as a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Youth provided a saliva sample for DNA analyses; the 480 base pair variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine active transporter 1 gene (DAT1) and the 120 base pair promoter polymorphism of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) were genotyped. Multiple mediation analysis revealed significant indirect associations between DAT1 genotype and inattention, hyperactivity–impulsivity, and oppositionality, with specific indirect effects through response inhibition. The results highlight the role of neurocognitive task performance, particularly response inhibition, as a potential intermediate phenotype for ADHD, further elucidating the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and externalizing psychopathology.
This book provides an overview of the research related to psychological assessment across South Africa. The thirty-six chapters provide a combination of psychometric theory and practical assessment applications in order to combine the currently disparate research that has been conducted locally in this field. Existing South African texts on psychological assessment are predominantly academic textbooks that explain psychometric theory and provide brief descriptions of a few testing instruments. Psychological Assessment in South Africa provides in-depth coverage of a range of areas within the broad field of psychological assessment, including research conducted with various psychological instruments. The chapters critically interrogate the current Eurocentric and Western cultural hegemonic practices that dominate the field of psychological assessment. The book therefore has the potential to function both as an academic text for graduate students, as well as a specialist resource for professionals, including psychologists, psychometrists, remedial teachers and human resource practitioners.
Over the past seven years, in my role with Anglicare WA, I have had the privilege of listening to many separated parents share their concerns about their children's safety when spending time with the other parent who has been violent towards them. These concerns include, but are not limited to, trying to prove to the court that their children have been victims of family violence and that this risk will continue and possibly escalate during contact visits. The protective parent often reports that the children continue to be sent on contact visits even when the children experience a significant degree of trauma over their time in the care of the offending parent. In some cases the offending parent has a new partner who is also a victim of family violence and the children are exposed to this violence while on contact visits. Despite disclosures from the children, and efforts to keep them safe by reporting to the statutory agencies, I find that many of these children continue to be sent on contact visits. I am frequently told by the protective parent that when they are in court they are informed that a) there is insufficient evidence to warrant the court preventing the child from spending time with the other (violent) parent; and b) the father has the right to a meaningful relationship with his child and therefore contact will be ordered. It seems that priority is given to the parent's right to spend time with the child at the expense of the child's need, and right, to be safe.