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Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) can be prevented through infection prevention practices and antibiotic stewardship. Diagnostic stewardship (ie, strategies to improve use of microbiological testing) can also improve antibiotic use. However, little is known about the use of such practices in US hospitals, especially after multidisciplinary stewardship programs became a requirement for US hospital accreditation in 2017. Thus, we surveyed US hospitals to assess antibiotic stewardship program composition, practices related to CDI, and diagnostic stewardship.
Surveys were mailed to infection preventionists at 900 randomly sampled US hospitals between May and October 2017. Hospitals were surveyed on antibiotic stewardship programs; CDI prevention, treatment, and testing practices; and diagnostic stewardship strategies. Responses were compared by hospital bed size using weighted logistic regression.
Overall, 528 surveys were completed (59% response rate). Almost all (95%) responding hospitals had an antibiotic stewardship program. Smaller hospitals were less likely to have stewardship team members with infectious diseases (ID) training, and only 41% of hospitals met The Joint Commission accreditation standards for multidisciplinary teams. Guideline-recommended CDI prevention practices were common. Smaller hospitals were less likely to use high-tech disinfection devices, fecal microbiota transplantation, or diagnostic stewardship strategies.
Following changes in accreditation standards, nearly all US hospitals now have an antibiotic stewardship program. However, many hospitals, especially smaller hospitals, appear to struggle with access to ID expertise and with deploying diagnostic stewardship strategies. CDI prevention could be enhanced through diagnostic stewardship and by emphasizing the role of non–ID-trained pharmacists and clinicians in antibiotic stewardship.
To evaluate long-term efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) by examining response rates from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores. Preliminary results of the responder analysis are reported in this analysis.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, the odds of response to deutetrabenazine treatment were higher than the odds of response to placebo at all response levels, and there were low rates of overall adverse events and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration and a long-term maintenance phase. The cumulative proportion of AIMS responders from baseline was assessed. Response was defined as a percent improvement from baseline for each patient from 10% to 90% in 10% increments. AlMS score was assessed by local site ratings for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 patients received deutetrabenazine). At Week 54 (n=145; total daily dose [mean±standard error]: 38.1±0.9mg), 63% of patients receiving deutetrabenazine achieved ≥30% response, 48% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 26% achieved ≥70% response. At Week 80 (n=66; total daily dose: 38.6±1.1mg), 76% of patients achieved ≥30% response, 59% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 36% achieved ≥70% response. Treatment was generally well tolerated.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates higher than those observed in positive short-term studies, indicating clinically meaningful long-term treatment benefit.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) at 2years.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores compared with placebo, and there were low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safety measures included incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs; incidence/patient-years) were used to compare AE frequencies for long-term treatment with those for short-term treatment (ARM-TD and AIM-TD). This analysis reports results up to 2 years (Week106).
343 patients were enrolled (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 received deutetrabenazine). There were 331.4 patient-years of exposure in this analysis. Through Week 106, EAIRs of AEs were comparable to or lower than those observed with short-term deutetrabenazine and placebo, including AEs of interest (akathisia/restlessness [long-term EAIR: 0.02; short-term EAIR range: 0–0.25], anxiety [0.09; 0.13–0.21], depression [0.09; 0.04–0.13], diarrhea [0.06; 0.06–0.34], parkinsonism [0.01; 0–0.08], somnolence/sedation [0.09; 0.06–0.81], and suicidality [0.02; 0–0.13]). The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.15) was similar to those observed with short-term placebo (0.33) and deutetrabenazine (range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to withdrawal (0.08), dose reduction (0.17), and dose suspension (0.06) were uncommon.
These results confirm the safety outcomes seen in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD parent studies, demonstrating that deutetrabenazine is well tolerated for long-term use in TD patients.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California,USA
Funding Acknowledgements: Funding: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel
In 2017, we surveyed 101 SHEA Research Network hospitals regarding Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Of 29 respondents, 94% have or are developing a water management plan with varying characteristics and personnel engaged. Most LD diagnostic testing is limited to urine antigen testing. Many opportunities to improve LD prevention and diagnosis exist.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this partnership was to create a global network of clinical and public health researchers and communities conducting technology-assisted research in noncommunicable disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The University of Rochester’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) has successfully leveraged the informatics core’s capacity into an emerging network of organizations that focus on technology and health in settings outside of the mainland United States. The CTSI coordinated with another NIH-funded infrastructure program [the RCMI Translational Research Network (RTRN)] to identify partner institutions interested in technology and health. RTRN identified the University of Puerto Rico and the University of Hawaii, both of which serve as hubs for common research interests in technology and health throughout the Caribbean and the Pacific. This network was formalized as the CDC’s Coordinating Center for its Global and Territorial Health Research Network (the “Global Network”), with additional US partners (Yale, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of North Caroline Chapel Hill, and the University of South Florida) within a wider scope of the CDC’s Prevention Research Centers (PRC) program. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Through combining 2 main NIH-funded research infrastructure networks (CTSA and RTRN), with a large CDC-funded PRC, the University of Rochester’s Informatics Core was successful in establishing a new productive global health network throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, and in the Pacific, garnering additional research support from NIH Fogarty and other programs. The resulting network not only supports locally-important research in technology and health on compelling health issues (eg, diabetes, ZIka, participation in research), but also facilitates community engagement through local partnerships and the cores of the involved networks. In addition, much of the information and communications technology (ICT)-related research and learnings from the Global Network activity is immediately applicable to populations in the United States, served by the various collaborative networks. In total, while new, the Global Network supports a wide range of projects and engagements throughout the world that expand local informatics capacity and use of technology in the research process and to address global health problems, further enhancing the CTSI’s informatics core to serve the needs of its own constituency and promote research engagement with technology within this population. Local research collaborative projects reinforce the utility of the network and its resources, evidenced by tools, publications, partnerships, and conference presentations that have arisen. Lessons to date from this Global Network collaboration include: specific global research projects provide opportunities for partnership building and meaningful collaboration, team science is of central importance in distributing the work of the network, synergy is multidirectional with expertise and need flowing in all directions, and project team members in all locales learned and contributed substantially in ways that carried into their other responsibilities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The overall partnership has created opportunity for South-South collaboration, for adaptation of projects among locales, and has helped boost reputational value for all partners involved. Implications for other CTSA awardees include: global collaboration can serve core research and technical needs for the CTSA itself and its local partners, CTSA status can be leveraged to access resources to support local research, and collaboration in other federally-funded research networks helps expand the insight, scope, and potential for new research.
To develop a national nutrition and mental health research agenda based on the engagement of diverse stakeholders and to assess research priorities by stakeholder groups.
A staged, integrated and participatory initiative was implemented to structure a national nutrition and mental health research agenda that included: (i) national stakeholder consultations to prioritize research questions; (ii) a workshop involving national representatives from research, policy and practice to further define priorities; (iii) triangulation of data to formulate the agenda; and (iv) test hypotheses about stakeholder influences on decision making.
Diverse stakeholders including researchers, academics, administrators, service providers, policy makers, practitioners, non-profit, industry and funding agency representatives, front-line workers, individuals with lived experience of a mental health condition and those who provide care for them.
This first-of-its-kind research priority-setting initiative showed points of agreement among diverse stakeholders (n 899) on research priorities aimed at service provision; however, respondents with lived experience of a mental health condition (themselves or a family member) placed emphasis on prevention and mental health promotion-based research. The final integrated agenda identified four research priorities, including programmes and services, service provider roles, the determinants of health and knowledge translation and exchange. These research priorities aim to identify effective models of care, enhance collaboration, inform policy makers and foster knowledge dissemination.
Since a predictor of research uptake is the involvement of relevant stakeholders, a sustained and deliberate effort must continue to engage collaboration that will lead to the optimization of nutrition and mental health-related outcomes.
A Canadian sample was collected as an aspect of a large international project, with representation from Australia, Canada, China, and Switzerland. In each country, interview and survey data were collected using team-created research tools. Canadian survey data on disability management (DM) perceptions were collected from 218 employees in both public and private organisations. Our Canadian employee sample reported perceived influence of disability prevention on job satisfaction, physical health, mental health, and morale for both themselves and their coworkers. Return to work programs were seen as valuable for job satisfaction of both the employee and coworkers, as well as the physical health of coworkers. Similarly, stay at work programs were seen as valuable for mental health and morale of coworkers. There was no relationship between perceived influence of DM interventions and reduction of sickness absence. The influence of DM was perceived as more positive for private and/or nonunionised workplaces. No gender differences were evident.
Although there is increased awareness of patient and public involvement (PPI) among Health Technology Assessment (HTA) organizations, evaluations of PPI initiatives are relatively scarce. Our objective as members of HTAi's Patient and Citizen Involvement Group (PCIG) was to advance understanding of the range of evaluation strategies adopted by HTA organizations and their potential usefulness.
In March 2016, a survey was sent to HTA organizations through the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) and contacts of members of HTAi's PCIG. Respondents were asked about their organizational structure; how patients and members of the public are involved; whether and how PPI initiatives have been evaluated, and, if so, which facilitators and challenges to evaluation were found and how results were used and disseminated.
Fifteen programs from twelve countries responded that involved patient (14/15) and members of the public (10/15) in HTA activities. Seven programs evaluated their PPI activities, including participant satisfaction (5/7), process evaluations (5/7) and impact evaluations (4/7). Evaluation results were used to improve PPI activities, identify education and training needs, and direct strategic priorities. Facilitators and challenges revolved around the need for stakeholder buy-in, sufficient resources, senior leadership, and including patients in evaluations. Participants also provided suggestions based on their experiences for others embarking on this work, for example including patients and members of the public in the process.
We identified a small but diverse set of HTA organizations internationally that are evaluating their PPI activities. Our results add to the limited literature by documenting a range of evaluation strategies that reflect the range of rationales and approaches to PPI in HTA. It will be important for HTA organizations to draw on formal evaluation theories and methods when planning future evaluations, and to also share their approaches and experiences with evaluation.
Objectives: Although there is increased awareness of patient and public involvement (PPI) among health technology assessment (HTA) organizations, evaluations of PPI initiatives are relatively scarce. Our objective as members of Health Technology Assessment International's (HTAi's) Patient and Citizen Involvement Group (PCIG) was to advance understanding of the range of evaluation strategies adopted by HTA organizations and their potential usefulness.
Methods: In March 2016, a survey was sent to fifty-four HTA organizations through the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) and contacts of members of HTAi's PCIG. Respondents were asked about their organizational structure; how patients and members of the public are involved; whether and how PPI initiatives have been evaluated, and, if so, which facilitators and challenges to evaluation were found and how results were used and disseminated.
Results: Fifteen (n = 15) programs from twelve countries responded (response rate 27.8 percent) that involved patients (14/15) and members of the public (10/15) in HTA activities. Seven programs evaluated their PPI activities, including participant satisfaction (5/7), process (5/7) and impact evaluations (4/7). Evaluation results were used to improve PPI activities, identify education and training needs, and direct strategic priorities. Facilitators and challenges revolved around the need for stakeholder buy-in, sufficient resources, senior leadership, and including patients in evaluations.
Conclusions: A small but diverse set of HTA organizations evaluate their PPI activities using a range of strategies that reflect the range of rationales and approaches to PPI in HTA. It will be important for HTA organizations to draw on evaluation theories and methods.
Objectives: To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. Results: 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Conclusion: Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.
Integrated weed management (IWM) for agronomic and vegetable production
systems utilizes all available options to effectively manage weeds.
Late-season weed control measures are often needed to improve crop harvest
and stop additions to the weed seed bank. Eliminating the production of
viable weed seeds is one of the key IWM practices. The objective of this
research was to determine how termination method and timing influence viable
weed seed production of late-season weed infestations. Research was
conducted in Delaware, Michigan, and New York over a 2-yr period. The weeds
studied included: common lambsquarters, common ragweed, giant foxtail,
jimsonweed, and velvetleaf. Three termination methods were imposed: cutting
at the plant base (simulating hand hoeing), chopping (simulating mowing),
and applying glyphosate. The three termination timings were flowering,
immature seeds present, and mature seeds present. Following termination,
plants were stored in the field in mesh bags until mid-Fall when seeds were
counted and tested for viability. Termination timing influenced viable seed
development; however, termination method did not. Common ragweed and giant
foxtail produced viable seeds when terminated at the time of flowering. All
species produced some viable seed when immature seeds were present at the
time of termination. The time of viable seed formation varied based on
species and site-year, ranging from plants terminated the day of flowering
to 1,337 growing degree d after flowering (base 10, 0 to 57 calendar d).
Viable seed production was reduced by 64 to 100% when common lambsquarters,
giant foxtail, jimsonweed, and velvetleaf were terminated with immature
seeds present, compared to when plants were terminated with some mature
seeds present. Our results suggest that terminating common lambsquarters,
common ragweed, and giant foxtail prior to flowering, and velvetleaf and
jimsonweed less than 2 and 3 wk after flowering, respectively, greatly
reduces weed seed bank inputs.
We surveyed 571 US hospitals about practices used to prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Most hospitals reported regularly using key CDI prevention practices, and perceived their strength of evidence as high. The largest discrepancy between regular use and perceived evidence strength occurred with antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(8):969–971
The gut microbiota and its metabolic products interact with the host in many different ways, influencing gut homoeostasis and health outcomes. The species composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to respond to dietary change, determined by competition for substrates and by tolerance of gut conditions. Meanwhile, the metabolic outputs of the microbiota, such as SCFA, are influenced both by the supply of dietary components and via diet-mediated changes in microbiota composition. There has been significant progress in identifying the phylogenetic distribution of pathways responsible for formation of particular metabolites among human colonic bacteria, based on combining cultural microbiology and sequence-based approaches. Formation of butyrate and propionate from hexose sugars, for example, can be ascribed to different bacterial groups, although propionate can be formed via alternative pathways from deoxy-sugars and from lactate by a few species. Lactate, which is produced by many gut bacteria in pure culture, can also be utilised by certain Firmicutes to form butyrate, and its consumption may be important for maintaining a stable community. Predicting the impact of diet upon such a complex and interactive system as the human gut microbiota not only requires more information on the component groups involved but, increasingly, the integration of such information through modelling approaches.
Prehospital postresuscitation induced hypothermia (IH) has been shown to reduce neurological complications in comatose cardiac-arrest survivors. Retrofitting ambulances to include equipment appropriate to initiate hypothermia, such as refrigeration units for cooled saline, is expensive. The objective of this nonhuman subject research study was to determine if inexpensive, commercially available coolers could, in conjunction with five reusable ice packs, keep two 1 L bags of precooled 0.9% normal saline solution (NSS) at or below 4°C for an average shift of eight to 12 hours in a real-world environment, on board in-service Emergency Medical Service (EMS) units, over varying weather conditions in all seasons.
The coolers were chosen based on availability and affordability from two nationally available brands: The Igloo MaxxCold (Igloo Products Corp., Katy, Texas USA) and Coleman (The Coleman Company, Wichita, Kansas USA). Both are 8.5 liter (nine-quart) coolers that were chosen because they adequately held two 1 L bags of saline solution, along with the reusable ice packs designated in the study design, and were small enough for ease of placement on ambulances. Initial testing of the coolers was conducted in a controlled environment. Thereafter, each EMS unit was responsible to cool the saline to less than 4°C prior to shift. Data were collected by emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and resident physicians working in seven different ambulance squads. Data analysis was performed using repeated measurements recorded over a 12-hour period from 19 individual coolers and were summarized by individual time points using descriptive statistics.
Initial testing determined that the coolers maintained temperatures of 4°C for 12 hours in a controlled environment. On the ambulances, results based on the repeated measurements over time revealed that the saline solution samples as defined in the protocol, remained consistently below 4°C for 12 hours. Utilizing the lower bound of the 2-sided 95% exact binomial confidence intervals, there was less than a five percent chance that saline samples could not be maintained below 4°C for 12 hours, even during the summer months.
Simple, commercially available coolers can maintain two 1 L bags of 0.9% NSS at 4°C for 12 hours in ambulances in varying environmental conditions. This suggests that EMS agencies could inexpensively initiate prehospital IH in appropriate cases.
KaneKE, TomshoRJ, PheasantK, StaufferT, SchoenfeldtB, HamiltonS, KainT, KaneBG. The “ICE” Study: Feasibility of Inexpensive Commercial Coolers on Mobile EMS Units. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-8.