Data on 22 radio-collared adult female roe deer Capreolus capreolus in the Chizé forest were used to test whether their home-range size was influenced by resource availability and reproductive status. As roe deer females are income breeders and invest heavily in each reproductive attempt, they should be limited by energetic constraints. Thus it was expected that: (1) heavier females should have larger home ranges; (2) that home-range size should decrease with increasing vegetation biomass; (3) home-range size should increase with increasing reproductive effort (i.e. females with two fawns at heel should have larger home ranges than those with one fawn, which should have larger home range than females without fawns). To test these predictions, variation in spring–summer home-range size was studied in 2001 and 2002, using 95% kernel home-range estimation. Results showed that females do not adjust their home-range size in response to body mass or age. Home-range size increased with increasing reproductive success, but the magnitude of the change varied over the period of maternal care. Finally, although their home-range size decreased with increasing plant biomass (slope = −0.11, SE=0.065), female roe deer at Chizé did not fully compensate for declines in food availability by increasing home-range size.