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The aim of this study was to (1) understand types and amounts of Ebola-related information that health organization employees wanted and obtained through formal, informal, internal, and external organizational communication channels; (2) determine potential discrepancies between information wanted and obtained; and (3) investigate how organizational structure might affect information wanted and obtained through these communication channels.
Primary data were collected from 526 health workers in 9 hospitals and 13 public health departments in Texas from June to November 2015. Survey data were collected for 7 types of Ebola-related information health organization employees wanted and obtained through various types of organizational communication channels. Descriptive statistical analyses, mixed design analysis of variance, regression analyses, and multilevel analyses were used to analyze the data.
Hospital employees (mostly nurses in our sample) received more self-care information than they wanted from every communication channel. However, they received less about all other types of information than they wanted from every communication channel separately and combined. Public health department employees wanted more information than they received from every communication channel separately and combined for all 7 types of information.
Discrepancies existed between the types of Ebola-related information wanted and obtained by employees of hospitals and public health departments.
To increase the proportion of patients with no psychotropic drug discrepancies at the community mental health team (CMHT)–general practice interface. Three CMHTs participated. Over a 14 month period, quality improvement methodologies were used: individual patient-level feedback to patient's prescribers, run charts and meetings with CMHTs.
One CMHT improved medicines reconciliation accuracy and demonstrated significant reductions in prescribing discrepancies. One in three (119/356) patients had ≥1 discrepancy involving 20% (166/847) of all prescribed psychotropics. Discrepancies were graded as: ‘fatal’ (0%), ‘serious’ (17%) and ‘negligible/minor harm’ (83%) but were associated with extra avoidable prescribing costs. For medicines routinely supplied by secondary care, 68% were not recorded in general practice electronic prescribing systems.
Improvements in medicines reconciliation accuracy were achieved for one CMHT. This may have been partly owing to a multidisciplinary team approach to sharing and addressing prescribing discrepancies. Improving prescribing accuracy may help to reduce avoidable drug-related harms to patients.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To translate a behavioral theory–informed, evidence-based, face-to-face health education program into an mHealth lifestyle intervention for African-Americans (AAs). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This mixed methods study consisted of 4 phases, using an iterative development process to intervention design with the AA community. In Phase 1, we held focus groups with AA community members and church partners (n=23) to gain insight regarding the needs and preferences of potential app end users. In Phase 2, the interdisciplinary research team synthesized input from Phase 1 for preliminary app design and content development. Phase 3 consisted of a sequential 3-meeting series with the church partners (n=13) for iterative app prototyping (assessment, cultural tailoring, final review). Phase 4 was a single group pilot study among AA church congregants (n=50) to assess app acceptability, usability, and satisfaction. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Phase 1 focus groups indicated preferences for general and health related apps: multifunctional; high-quality graphics/visuals; evidence-based, yet simple health information; and social networking capability. Phase 2 integrated these preferences into the preliminary app prototype. Feedback from Phase 3 was used to refine the FAITH! App prototype for pilot testing. Phase 4 pilot testing indicated high acceptability, usability, and satisfaction of the FAITH! App. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study illustrates the process of using formative and CBPR approaches to design a culturally relevant, mHealth lifestyle intervention to address CV health disparities within the AA community. Given the positive perceptions of the app, our study supports the use of an iterative development process by others interested in implementing an mHealth lifestyle intervention for racial/ethnic minority communities.
In the United Kingdom (UK), 23,000 people annually are diagnosed with facial palsy (acute onset facial paralysis). For nearly one third this will result in a permanent disability, including in some the inability to smile. In addition to initial pharmacological therapy, guidelines recommend tailored facial exercise (TFE) therapy repeated every day. However, not all patients are currently able to access such specialist physical therapy. ‘Smart specs’ (using miniaturized sensors in the frames to measure facial movement) are currently being developed. Linked to a smartphone, these could allow people to practice TFEs discreetly, provide immediate feedback, and supply data on outcomes to the patient and their clinician.
Modelling of introduction of Facial Remote Activity Monitoring Eyewear (FRAME) into treatment pathways for patients with facial palsy. This included: (i) review on effectiveness of TFE therapy; (ii) national surveys (medical staff, facial therapy specialists and patients) to gather data on access to TFE therapy; (iii) Delphi Exercise to identify consensus on key outcome measures; and, (iv) economic modelling to estimate cost-effectiveness and determine a range of acceptable costs for the technology. In parallel, research to examine target markets to inform product development, and production of integral commercialization plan.
Searches short-listed ten studies to add to the three included in the 2011 Cochrane review. Surveys indicate approximately thirteen percent of eligible UK patients access personalized TFE therapy. Estimated annual expenditure on hospital treatments for facial palsy patients is currently >GBP 80 million (>USD 106 million) compared with <GBP 0.5 million (<USD 0.66 million) on TFE therapy. Patients with permanent defects can suffer a loss of up to two quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).
Findings from this study, particularly in relation to costs and benefits, will inform the design of a subsequent randomized controlled trial. A novel wearable technology could make a major difference to people's lives, as well as generating potential efficiencies for healthcare.
According to most historians, the majority of northern urban Catholics before Vatican II (1962–1965) were ensconced in their parish boundaries, viewing their existence through the lens of the parish and focusing the majority of their attention on matters within their particular geographic location. As African Americans moved north during the Great Migration (1910s–1960s) and the racial dynamics of cities changed, some black Catholics began to organize for what they called “interracial justice,” a term that reflected their belief that black equality would benefit African Americans and whites. This article argues that the parish boundaries paradigm for understanding Catholicism prior to the reforms of Vatican II fails to account for the efforts of black Catholics working for interracial justice. This article considers four ways black Catholic interracialists moved beyond their parish boundaries: (a) the national networks they cultivated with white priests; (b) the theological doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ they used to support their work; (c) the local relationships they developed with non-Catholics; and (d) the connections they made with young white Catholics. By advancing this argument, this essay highlights the relationship between race and religion—both how the institutional Catholic church reinforced racial hierarchies and how black Catholics leveraged their faith to tear them down. Finally, this article reorients the history of Catholic interracialism by focusing on black laypeople and connects two bodies of literature that rarely comment on one another: that of Catholicism and the long civil rights movement.
To quantify associations of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with the overall diet quality of First Nations peoples.
A cross-sectional analysis of data from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study, designed to contribute to knowledge gaps regarding the diet of First Nations peoples living on-reserve, south of the 60th parallel. A multistage sampling of communities was conducted. All foods from 24 h dietary recalls were categorized into NOVA categories and analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of UPF on diet quality.
Western and Central Canada.
First Nations participants aged 19 years or older.
The sample consisted of 3700 participants. UPF contributed 53·9 % of energy. Compared with the non-UPF fraction of the diet, the UPF fraction had 3·5 times less vitamin A, 2·4 times less K, 2·2 times less protein, 2·3 times more free sugars and 1·8 times more Na. As the contribution of UPF to energy increased so did the overall intakes of energy, carbohydrate, free sugar, saturated fat, Na, Ca and vitamin C, and Na:K; while protein, fibre, K, Fe and vitamin A decreased. Diets of individuals who ate traditional First Nations food (e.g. wild plants and game animals) on the day of the recall were lower in UPF.
UPF were prevalent in First Nations diets. Efforts to curb UPF consumption and increase intake of traditional First Nations foods and other fresh or minimally processed foods would improve diet quality and health in First Nations peoples.
Accurate reconstruction of the biomass, structure, and productivity of ancient forests from their fossilized remnants remains an interesting challenge in paleoecology. In well-preserved Tertiary fossil Metasequoia forests of Canada's Arctic, in situ stumps and fragments of stems, treetops, and branches contain substantial information about tree dimensions that can be used to determine tree height, stand biomass, and other characteristics such as canopy depth and structure, and the history of stand development. To validate a method for reconstructing the biomass of the Eocene floodplain Metasequoia forests of Axel Heiberg Island, we measured stump diameters and spacing, and stem, branch, and treetop characteristics in living Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Chamaecyparis thyoides stands in ways that simulate the limited measurements that can be made in well-preserved fossil forests in Canada and probably elsewhere. We used those limited measurements to estimate tree height and volume, branch and foliar dry weights, and tree biomass. The estimates derived from the limited data set are usually within 15% of the estimates derived from the methods currently used in forest ecology for determining those metrics in modern forests. Under appropriate conditions, the biomass of ancient forests can be estimated with reasonable confidence.
When caring for a loved one with a life-limiting illness, a caregiver's own physical, emotional, and spiritual suffering can be profound. While many interventions focus on physical and emotional well-being, few caregiver interventions address existential and spiritual needs and the meaning that caregivers ascribe to their role. To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the process and content of Caregiver Outlook, we employed a manualized chaplain-led intervention to improve well-being by exploring role-related meaning among caregivers of patients with a life-limiting illness.
We conducted a single-arm pre–post pilot evaluation among caregivers of patients with advanced cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Caregivers completed three chaplain-led intervention sessions focusing on (1) a relationship review, (2) forgiveness, and (3) legacy. Outcomes administered at baseline and at 1 and 2 weeks after the intervention included quality of life, anxiety, depression, spiritual well-being, religious coping, caregiver burden, and grief.
The sample (N = 31) included a range of socioeconomic status groups, and the average age was approximately 60 years. A third of them worked full-time. Some 74% of our participants cared for a spouse or partner, and the other quarter of the sample cared for a parent (13%), child (10%), or other close family member (3%). At baseline, participants did not demonstrate clinical threshold levels of anxiety, depression, or other indicators of distress. Outcomes were stable over time. The qualitative results showed the ways in which Caregiver Outlook was assistive: stepping back from day-to-day tasks, the opportunity to process emotions, reflecting on support received, provoking thoughts and emotions between sessions, discussing role changes, stimulating communication with others, and the anonymity of a phone conversation. Both religious and nonreligious participants were pleased with administration of the chaplain intervention.
Significance of results:
The acceptability and feasibility of Caregiver Outlook were demonstrated among caregivers of patients with an advanced illness. Our pilot findings suggest minor modifications to study participant screening, interventionist guidance, and the study measures.
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) have made dramatic technical advances in the past decade. Their use domestically is currently tightly constrained by existing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Within the next few years, the FAA is expected to provide a regulatory framework that allows for a greatly expanded role for UASs in domestic airspace for a wide variety of applications. One of those will be remote sensing for land and natural resource monitoring. While there has recently been a large body of published research on UAS applications to environmental monitoring, in practice, very little has been operationalized by private or public entities to date. In July 2014, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a workshop dedicated to environmental monitoring UAS applications with attendance by representatives from 11 federal agencies as well as academics. The workshop reviewed the UAS state-of-the-art within the federal arena and barriers to broader UAS use. While a number of agencies, the including National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration, the United States Geological Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Bureau of Land Management have conducted proof-of-concept UAS demonstrations, typically using surplus Department of Defense equipment, the promise of UAS systems at the moment remains untapped for a variety of reasons. The consensus was, however, that UAS systems will play an increasingly important role in cost-effectively supporting timely natural-resource and land-management monitoring needs.
The purpose of this study was to describe the longitudinal trajectories and bidirectional relationships of the physical-social and emotional functioning (EF) dimensions of positive aging and to identify their baseline characteristics.
Women age 65 and older who enrolled in one or more Women's Health Initiative clinical trials (WHI CTs) and who had positive aging indicators measured at baseline and years 1, 3, 6, and 9 were included in these analyses (N = 2281). Analytic strategies included latent class growth modeling to identify longitudinal trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to examine the effects of baseline predictors on these trajectories.
A five-trajectory model was chosen to best represent the data. For Physical-Social Functioning (PSF), trajectory groups included Low Maintainer (8.3%), Mid-Low Improver (10.4%), Medium Decliner (10.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (31.2%), and High Maintainer (39.4%); for EF, trajectories included Low Maintainer (3%), Mid-Low Improver (9%), Medium Decliner (7.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (22.8%), and High Maintainer (57.5%). Cross-classification of the groups of trajectories demonstrated that the impact of a high and stable EF on PSF might be greater than the reverse. Low depression symptoms, low pain, and high social support were the most consistent predictors of high EF trajectories.
Aging women are heterogeneous in terms of positive aging indicators for up to 9 years of follow-up. Interventions aimed at promoting sustainable EF might have diffused effects on other domains of healthy aging.
Our objective was to determine whether a questionnaire can identify individuals with vitamin D insufficiency (VDI).
Women completed the Vitamin D & Sun (VIDSUN) questionnaire and we measured their serum 25-hydrocyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire to identify VDI (25(OH)D level <50 nmol/l).
Clinical Research Unit, University of Wisconsin–Madison.
We recruited 609 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 61 (sd 6 years), of whom 113 (19 %) had VDI. Women with VDI were more likely to be black (17 % v. 2 %, P < 0·001), heavier (BMI 33·0 (sd 7) kg/m2v. 29·0 (sd 7) kg/m2, P < 0·001) and less likely to tan in the past year (49 % v. 72 %, P < 0·001), use sunscreen (57 % v. 72 %, P < 0·001) or report sun exposure in the last 3 months. They consumed less vitamin D from supplements (2·15 (sd 5·24) μg/d (86 (sd 210) IU/d) v. 4·55 (sd 8·48) μg/d (188 (sd 344) IU/d), P = 0·003). In logistic regression models, black race, BMI, suntan within the past year, sun exposure in the past 3 months, sunscreen use and supplemental vitamin D intake were the most useful questions to identify VDI. From these six items, a composite score of ≤2·25 demonstrated ≥89 % sensitivity but ≤35 % specificity for VDI.
The VIDSUN questionnaire provides an initial tool to identify postmenopausal women at high or low risk of VDI. Existing studies suggest that inclusion of physical activity and TAG levels might improve the performance of the VIDSUN questionnaire.
The number of people employed in international humanitarian care is growing at a yearly rate of 6%. The demand for better coordination, accountability, and training has led to a need for standardized humanitarian training programs for providers. Training should be based on comprehensive core competencies that providers must demonstrate in addition to their skill-specific competencies. This report explores the competencies specific to humanitarian training that are practice- and application-oriented, teachable, and measurable. Competency-based, standardized programs will be used to select humanitarian workers deployed in future crises and to guide the professionalization of this discipline.
Alexander Litvinenko died on November 23, 2006, from acute radiation sickness syndrome caused by ingestion of polonium-210 (210Po).
The objective was to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for internal contamination with 210Po in healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for the contaminated patient.
HCWs who had direct contact with the patient.
We interviewed 43 HCWs and enquired about their activities and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Internal contamination was denned as urinary 210Po excretion above 20 mBq within 24 hours. We obtained risk ratios (RRs) for internal contamination using Poisson regression.
Thirty-seven HCWs (86%) responded, and 8 (22%) showed evidence of internal contamination, all at very low levels that were unlikely to cause adverse health outcomes. Daily care of the patient (washing and toileting the patient) was the main risk factor (RR, 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-11.6]). In contrast, planned invasive procedures were not associated with a higher risk. There was some evidence of a higher risk associated with handling blood samples (RR, 3.5 [95% CI, 0.8-15.6]) and changing urine bags and/or collecting urine samples (RR, 2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.5]). There was also some evidence that those who reported not always using standard PPE were at higher risk than were others (RR, 2.5 [95% CI, 0.8-8.1]).
The sensitive quantitative measurement enabled us to identify factors associated with contamination, which by analogy to other conditions with similar transmission mechanisms may help improve protection and preparedness in staff dealing with an ill patient who experiences an unknown illness.
The weaning period is associated with an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal infection in many species. Glutamine (Gln) has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function and immune function in both in vivo and in vitro models. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary Gln supplementation on intestinal barrier function and intestinal cytokines in a model of Escherichia coli infection. We randomised 21-d-old piglets (n 20) to nutritionally complete isonitrogenous diets with or without Gln (4·4 %, w/w) for 2 weeks. Intestinal loops were isolated from anaesthetised pigs and inoculated with either saline or one of the two E. coli (K88AC or K88 wild-type)-containing solutions. Intestinal tissue was studied for permeability, cytokine expression, fluid secretion and tight-junction protein expression. Animals receiving Gln supplementation had decreased potential difference (PD) and short-circuit current (Isc) in E. coli-inoculated intestinal loops (PD 0·628 (sem 0·151) mV; Isc 13·0 (sem 3·07) μA/cm2) compared with control-fed animals (PD 1·36 (sem 0·227) mV; Isc 22·4 (sem 2·24) μA/cm2). Intestinal tissue from control, but not from Gln-supplemented, animals responded to E. coli with a significant increase in mucosal cytokine mRNA (IL-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor-β and IL-10). Tight-junction protein expression (claudin-1 and occludin) was reduced with exposure to E. coli in control-fed animals and was not influenced in Gln-supplemented piglets. Gln supplementation may be useful in reducing the severity of weaning-related gastrointestinal infections, by reducing the mucosal cytokine response and altering intestinal barrier function.