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To investigate the association between energy drink (ED) use and sleep-related disturbances in a population-based sample of young adults from the Raine Study.
Analysis of cross-sectional data obtained from self-administered questionnaires to assess ED use and sleep disturbance (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ-10) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Symptoms Questionnaire–Insomnia (PSSQ-I)). Regression modelling was used to estimate the effect of ED use on sleep disturbances. All models adjusted for various potential confounders.
Males and females, aged 22 years, from Raine Study Gen2–22 year follow-up.
Of the 1115 participants, 66 % were never/rare users (i.e. <once/month) of ED, 17·0 % were occasional users (i.e. >once/month to <once/week) and 17 % were frequent users (≥once/week). Compared with females, a greater proportion of males used ED occasionally (19 % v. 15 %) or frequently (24 % v. 11 %). Among females, frequent ED users experienced significantly higher symptoms of daytime sleepiness (FOSQ-10: β = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·32, 1·54, P = 0·003) and were five times more likely to experience insomnia (PSSQ-I: OR = 5·10, 95 % CI 1·81, 14·35, P = 0·002) compared with never/rare users. No significant associations were observed in males for any sleep outcomes.
We found a positive association between ED use and sleep disturbances in young adult females. Given the importance of sleep for overall health, and ever-increasing ED use, intervention strategies are needed to curb ED use in young adults, particularly females. Further research is needed to determine causation and elucidate reasons for gender-specific findings.
This study evaluated a school-based intervention to enhance adolescent peer relationships and improve functional outcomes, building upon Ed Zigler’s seminal contribution in recognizing the potential of academic contexts to enhance social and emotional development. Adolescents (N = 610) primarily from economically or racially/ethnically marginalized groups were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at 4-month follow-up in a randomized controlled trial. At program completion, intervention participants reported significantly increased quality of peer relationships; by 4-month follow-up, this increased quality was also observable by peers outside of the program, and program participants also displayed higher levels of academic engagement and lower levels of depressive symptoms. These latter effects appear to have potentially been mediated via participants’ increased use of social support. The potential of the Connection Project intervention specifically, and of broader efforts to activate adolescent peer relationships as potent sources of social support and growth more generally within the secondary school context, is discussed.
Strain rates are fundamental measures of ice flow and are used in a wide variety of glaciological applications including investigations of bed properties, calculations of basal mass balance on ice shelves, and constraints on ice rheological models. However, despite their extensive application, strain rates are calculated using a variety of methods and length scales and the details are often not specified. In this study, we compare the results of nominal and logarithmic strain-rate calculations based on a satellite-derived velocity field of the Antarctic ice sheet generated from Landsat 8 satellite data. Our comparison highlights the differences between the two common approaches in the glaciological literature. We evaluate the errors introduced by each approach and their impacts on the results. We also demonstrate the importance of choosing and specifying a length scale over which strain-rate calculations are made, which can strongly influence other derived quantities such as basal mass balance on ice shelves. Finally, we present strain-rate data products calculated using an approximate viscous length-scale with satellite observations of ice velocity for the Antarctic continent.
The time required to obtain Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval is a frequent subject of efforts to reduce unnecessary delays in initiating clinical trials. This study was conducted by and for IRB directors to better understand factors affecting approval times as a first step in developing a quality improvement framework.
807 IRB-approved clinical trials from 5 University of California campuses were analyzed to identify operational and clinical trial characteristics influencing IRB approval times.
High workloads, low staff ratios, limited training, and the number and types of ancillary reviews resulted in longer approval times. Biosafety reviews and the need for billing coverage analysis were ancillary reviews that contributed to the longest delays. Federally funded and multisite clinical trials had shorter approval times. Variability in between individual committees at each institution reviewing phase 3 multisite clinical trials also contributed to delays for some protocols. Accreditation was not associated with shorter approval times.
Reducing unnecessary delays in obtaining IRB approval will require a quality improvement framework that considers operational and study characteristics as well as the larger institutional regulatory environment.
This article explores and reconsiders the view of children's encounters with place as central to a place-based pedagogy that seeks to dismantle rather than support constructions of a nature-culture binary. I unpack the current fervour for reinserting the child in nature and nature-based education as a significant phenomenon in environmental and outdoor education. I will draw on recent literature on place-based research and theorise using new materialist and posthumanist approaches that seek to disrupt anthropocentric views and support new ways of considering our encounters with the more-than-human world. Then, using these new approaches, I will theorise a recent place-based research project with children in the city of La Paz, Bolivia, to illustrate how it is possible to challenge current assumptions that are firmly entrenched in the child in nature movement. I will conclude by considering what intra-species relations, place encounters and child-body-animal-place relations can teach us about questioning anthropocentrism and human exceptionalism. Finally, I consider how can we overcome these limitations of a narrow and nostalgic view of ‘child and nature’ and reimagine a more diverse approach to education for a sustainable future.
Mounting an antibody response capable of discriminating amongst and appropriately targeting different parasites is crucial in host defence. However, cross-reactive antibodies that recognize (bind to) multiple parasite species are well documented. We aimed to determine if a higher inoculating dose of one species, and thus exposure to larger amounts of antigen over a longer period of time, would fine-tune responses to that species and reduce cross-reactivity. Using the Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (Pcc)–Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) co-infection model in BALB/c mice, in which we previously documented cross-reactive antibodies, we manipulated the inoculating dose of Pcc across 4 orders of magnitude. We investigated antigen-specific and cross-reactive antibody responses against crude and defined recombinant antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot and antibody depletion assays. Contrary to our hypothesis that increasing exposure to Pcc would reduce cross-reactivity to Nb, we found evidence for increased avidity of a subpopulation of antibodies that recognized shared antigens. Western blot indicated proteins of apparent monomer molecular mass 28 and 98 kDa in both Nb and Pcc antigen preparations and also an Nb protein of similar size to recombinant Pcc antigen, merozoite surface protein-119. The implications of antibodies binding antigen from such phylogenetically distinct parasites are discussed.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
This report evaluated (a) the temporal stability of hemodynamic
responses to three tasks using impedance cardiography, and (b)
the influence of aging on stress responses in a multi-ethnic
pediatric sample. One hundred children 8 to 10 years old and
49 adolescents 15 to 17 years old were tested at study entry
and on average 3 years later. Results showed that the composite
task-induced changes in stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO),
total peripheral resistance (TPR), and pre-ejection period (PEP)
were moderately stable across 3 years (rs = .36 to
.51), with children showing greater stability in task-induced
CO change than did adolescents. However, the magnitude of the
participant's stress responses changed over time, varied
by task, age group, and gender. These results suggest that
hemodynamic responses to stress change with aging during childhood
and adolescence and that they can be measured reliably.
Long-term memory (LTM) is one of the diverse cognitive functions
adversely affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). The LTM deficits
have often been attributed to failure of retrieval, whereas
encoding processes are presumed intact. However, support for
this view comes primarily from studies in which encoding and
retrieval operations were not investigated systematically. In
the current study, we used an encoding specificity paradigm
to examine the robustness of encoding in MS and to specifically
evaluate the impact of the disease on contextual memory. We
hypothesized that persons with MS would exhibit a selective
impairment in retrieving items from LTM when required to generate
new cue-target associations at encoding, but not when cues held
a strong preexisting relationship to the targets. The findings
supported the hypotheses. We conclude that the mnemonic deficits
associated with MS affect both encoding and retrieval.
Specifically, problems with binding of contextual information
at encoding impair effective retrieval of memories. Nonetheless,
access to these memories can be gained through preexisting
associations organized in the semantic network. (JINS,
2002, 8, 395–409.)
We hypothesized that patterns of sympathetic and
parasympathetic reactivity observed in adults would be
apparent in a sample of children and adolescents and that
these patterns would be consistent across tasks. We explored
the relationship between these patterns and psychosocial
risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We measured preejection
period (PEP) and an index of respiratory sinus arrhythmia
(mean successive difference [MSD] statistic)
during three reactivity tasks. We classified participants
into four groups based on increases or decreases in PEP
and MSD. Ninety percent of the sample exhibited the same
pattern during at least two of the tasks. PEP and MSD demonstrated
consistency, suggesting individual response stereotypy.
Exhibiting a consistent pattern of decreased PEP and increased
MSD was associated with less child- and parent-reported
family conflict. These results are discussed in the context
of vagal regulation of environmental demands.
Although millions of people with schizophrenia live in betel chewing regions, the effects of betel chewing on their symptoms are unknown. Betel nut alkaloids include potent muscarinic cholinomimetics: recent research suggests that these agents may be therapeutic in schizophrenia.
To compare the primary and extrapyramidal symptom profiles and substance-using habits of betel chewing v. non-chewing people with schizophrenia.
A cross-sectional study of 70 people with schizophrenia. Symptom ratings measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), and demographic and substance-use data, were compared for 40 chewers and 30 non-chewers of betel nut.
Betel chewers with schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the positive (P=0.001) and negative (P=0.002) sub-scales of the PANSS than did non-chewers. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms or tardive dyskinesia.
Betel chewing is associated with milder symptomatology and avoidance of more harmful recreational drugs. These initial results indicate that longitudinal research is merited.