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This chapter reviews the basic principles of radiologic tests, and describes the basic female anatomy. It provides information for appropriate imaging modalities for each part of the female genital tract. Currently ultrasound plays a role in monitoring the uterus during ovarian stimulation and early pregnancy. Assessment of uterine leiomyoma is historically achieved with ultrasonography, although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also offer detection of uterine fibroids. In reproductive medicine, imaging of the tubes is typically limited to evaluation of patency and distortion of normal anatomy, as in hydrosalpinges and salpingitis isthmica nodosum. Pituitary imaging is mostly performed in reproductive medicine for the infertile patient with persistently elevated prolactin levels or with levels over 100 ng/ml. Imaging is rarely performed in reproductive medicine specifically to evaluate for peritoneal disease. Laparoscopy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of peritoneal processes such as endometriosis.